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Lecture 2- class notes

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Reza Barmaki

Jan. 12/12 Lecture 2: Scientific Approach to the Understanding of the World - When we discuss about the universe it involves our physical (nature) and social life - Two major ways of understanding the world Criminology - The scientific approach to the study of social control and deviance - Forms of behavior - Example: worship is a form of human behaviour What is “science”? (One exam question) - Methodical investigation - Rule-bound:  Data collection  Hypothesis testing  Formulating theory - Examples: Biology, physics, chemistry… - They all come to the same conclusions about the world - Curiosity leads to hypothesis testing and collecting data - Rules: sample size, accuracy and etc… - Exchange notes and use measurements (instruments of measurement) to make it methodic - Observation is methodic (you have to see it) Where do you learn all these? - Universities What are other approaches? How is a scientific approach different from them? Religious Approach (Pre-scientific/unscientific) - Premises of all religions: A- There are supernatural forces - Beyond ordinary human powers (demons, gods, angels, spriites..) B- Control/Intervene - Natural and social processes - All religions share the above points - The image of God to be a big king gives a sort of psychological relief Original Sin (adam and eve) C- This can be direct or indirect - Through humans or animals D- Some for good and some for bad (evil) - Crime/devianceThe First Murder: Cain kills Abel - Why humans commit evil acts (crime)? 1. Influenced by “evil” forces 2. Their own nature: - Wicked (sinful) - Weak (easily tempted) Good forces & acts: positive results - Harmony - Order - Normality - Happiness - Enlightenment - Peace of mind - Salvation Evil forces & acts: negative results - Disorder - Chaos - Unhappiness - Darkness - Abnormality - Suffering - Damnation - Punishment Various forms of Punishment - By God(s): - Hell - Plague - Etc. - By Humans: - Excommunication - Burning at the stake - Etc. Polytheism - Many gods and/or goddesses - Have different powers - Control different spheres - Example: Ancient Greece and Rome Monotheism - One god - Omnipotent - Omnipresent - Abrahamic: - Judaism - Christianity - Islam Middle Ages Europe (Christianity) - Crime/deviance caused by: - Possessed/influenced by witches/demons - All work for Satan Demonology - A branch of theology - Study of malevolent superhuman beings - Demons or beliefs about them - How they influence humans to act
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