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SOC211H5 (104)
Lecture 3

Lecture 3- Class notes

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Reza Barmaki

Classical School of Criminology Jan. 19/12 - They are external forces that act on people other then divine forces which is social forces (Political, Economic, and etc..) - Two Key thinkers: Jeremy Bentham and Cesare Beccaria both philosopher Human Nature - Free will (choose what to do) - Children are seen as not to have free will because they don’t understand what they are doing - Hedonistic: seek pleasure (broader term other then physical), avoid pain and individuals choose their action based on this principle - Rational: cost/benefit calculation based on the knowledge they have analysis - You can choose to perform a crime and gain something from it like money (separation between morality and rationality) Crime and Society - Society is also a victim of offenders’ crimes - Offenders violate social contract:  Each individual should give up a part of their pleasure/interest for that of everyone - Security, peace - We all understand this and agree with it (social contract Punishment - Is necessary to secure social order - As a deterrent= prevents the criminal action - Send a message to other offenders - Changes the balance of pleasure and pain in favour of pain - It must be: swift, certain, proportionate Neoclassical Theory - Aimed at improving the classical theory Added three new concepts: 1. Mitigating factors: considering into account the difference between crimes and their in determining punishments 2. Past record: repeat offenders should receive harsher punishments 3. Differences in free will: one’s degree of “free” will (choosing what to do) depends on their life circumstances (class, power, prestige) - Poverty= limited alternatives - Increases chances of committing crime - Rich=more alternatives Rational Choice Thoery - People are rational - Calculate cost/benefit of actions - Based on information available to them - Choose to commit crime - Crime reduced through deterrence Routine Activity Theory - Crime from offender’s point of view - Based on Rational choice theory: Criminal a rational actor - 3 factors involved in offender’s decision to commit a crime - Crime: capable guardian, suitable target, motivated offender 1. Motivated offender: has reason to commit crime (poverty, debt, addiction, mental disorders…) 2. Target: could be a person, object, and place 3. Target Suitability: factors such as valuable, concealable, removable, available, enjoyable, disposable, and resistance - Target Hardening: reduces suitability (something of worth has a lock or alarms) - How not to be a suitable target: physical fitness, size, signs of toughness (tattoos, clothing…), avoiding wrong places/people - Offenders may make the wrong choice causing unexpected abilities/events Absence/Presence of Capable Guardian - In
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