SOC211H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Unintended Consequences, Extreme Measures, Solitary Confinement

17 views4 pages
4 Apr 2012
Classical School of Criminology Jan. 19/12
- They are external forces that act on people other then divine forces which is
social forces (Political, Economic, and etc..)
- Two Key thinkers: Jeremy Bentham and Cesare Beccaria both philosopher
Human Nature
- Free will (choose what to do)
- Children are seen as not to have free will because they don’t understand
what they are doing
- Hedonistic: seek pleasure (broader term other then physical), avoid pain
and individuals choose their action based on this principle
- Rational: cost/benefit calculation based on the knowledge they have
- You can choose to perform a crime and gain something from it like money
(separation between morality and rationality)
Crime and Society
- Society is also a victim of offenders’ crimes
- Offenders violate social contract:
Each individual should give up a part of their pleasure/interest for that of
- Security, peace
- We all understand this and agree with it (social contract
- Is necessary to secure social order
- As a deterrent= prevents the criminal action
- Send a message to other offenders
- Changes the balance of pleasure and pain in favour of pain
- It must be: swift, certain, proportionate
Neoclassical Theory
- Aimed at improving the classical theory
Added three new concepts:
1. Mitigating factors: considering into account the difference between crimes
and their in determining punishments
2. Past record: repeat offenders should receive harsher punishments
3. Differences in free will: one’s degree of “free” will (choosing what to do)
depends on their life circumstances (class, power, prestige)
- Poverty= limited alternatives
- Increases chances of committing crime
- Rich=more alternatives
Rational Choice Thoery
- People are rational
Unlock document

This preview shows page 1 of the document.
Unlock all 4 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.