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SOC211 lec 6.pdf

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Reza Barmaki

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SOC211 Lecture 6 – Social Disorganization Perspective May 30 2012 • Durkheim =Affected the next generation ofAmerican thinkers • Primary question= what kept people together? Solidarity, integration, social order etc. • SO how is society possible? What conditions are necessary to bring all these people together? What bonds?Answer: (1) Collective consciousness i.e. shared values and beliefs and (2)A division of labour, functional interconnection o The two components to having a society 1. Mechanical Solidarity: o Original state of human beings o Small, simple social groups with little division of labour o BUT had very similar belief systems, a very strong collective consciousness i.e. with traditions and customs • With mechanical, similarity is very important • The collective consciousness is very characteristic in mechanical and very unlikely that they will differ in beliefs • The collective consciousness demands absolute obedience from an individual • Crime would be a deviation in CC • Repressive laws indicate what is a threat to societal unity, it is prohibitive – what you do not do it is a command • Often religious taboos, many laws and many taboos • Crime is severely punished (i.e. For general deterrence), even after they were dead 2. Organic Solidarity: o Have more people than mechanical o Amore complex division of labour i.e. with specialization o Functional interdependence of individuals o Weak collective conscious • Organic solidarity=need other people for many things small or large i.e. the food you eat the clothes you where, you don’t make it yourself there are many other people involved in the process to get you those things • Little division of labour=MS to Complex division of labour (OS) o But as division of labour gets more complex you lose the strength of CC, majority of people believe in different things, ideals, have different values etc. o Therefore move from MS to OS = CC decreases while D of L increases i.e. both concepts still exist in all societies/both solidarities but in different proportions o OS=Increase in civil lawsa, which regulate functional interconnections, restores status quo, restitution (restores social order) decrease in punishment brutality o Division of labour increases=increase in contracts therefore laws to protect contracts (civil laws) are created and increased • Organic – don’t have lots in common i.e. with CC but there are some things that people still agree on (ex. Dignity and rights of human beings_ o More individualism, disregarding it=a collective reaction occurs (ex. With murderers or against people who hurt children) o Harsher punishments for behaving in ways against humanity o “Moral individual”=human rights=foundation for hate against murderers, slavery etc. • MI – Durkheim’s definition =>Sympathy for all human beings o Emphasize rights, dignity equality NOT inequality based on birth, rank, ethnicity etc. o Can violate MI with racism, ageism, sexism etc. o Modern laws change to protect human rights and punish violators of MI • Both kinds of solidarity are societies and therefore both have a collective consciousness to them as well as some kind of division of labour • Social Change and Social Order: o Rapid social change ->Abnormalities->Deviance (2 kinds) A. Anomic Deviance = “normlessness” • Rapid change = lack of norms, conflict between old and new norms • Result? Confusion of what the standards are, what the norms are • Norms reflect hopes/desires • Direct human c
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