Class Notes (809,508)
Canada (493,753)
Sociology (3,988)
SOC219H5 (123)
Lecture 9

SOC219-lecture 9.doc

10 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Natasha Myers

SOC219: Lecture 9 The house I live in – Movie that was played last week • Consider in conjunction with the reading for last week – Benerick- outlining regulation of drugs in Canada- historical perspective  reflect on what’s common and dissimilar in Canada and US’s approach – should we consider adopting US’s approach or no? • Think about the themes that we were talking about that was depicted in the film. The similarity and dissimilarity in the film and what we talked about in class Parole • Manslaughter- unintentional taking of somebody’s life • After released from prison, how likely are they to go back and kill somebody else. STUDY: • Looking over a 25-year period. 37 who were in custody for murder went out and committed another murder. There was more than 15,000 homicides in Canada, and 12, 000 plp were released from jail at that same time. The rate at those who committed another murder is 0.0038% and those who were released were 0.0031. o The likelihood of getting released and going out and committing another murder is EXTREMELY SMALL. • How should the policy be, about punishing those who murder? It is attached to a severe type of sanction, involving a long period of time in custody. How long should someone be kept in if it turns out that it is not likely for them to go back and murder again. • Murder is the result of passion, it is spontaneously, and even those who planned it, even those are very unlikely to do it again. o 1/3 and 2/3 point- those who are released on full parole, 10 revoked for a violent offence, and 89 for a non-violence offence, and 247 for breaching a condition of parole. Almost 75% of those released on parole were completely successful. But successful also depends on whether you SOC219: Lecture 9 think • Statutory release- by law you have to get out these plp are less successful, only 62 % of the time. • Most plp released from parole or statutory releases are successful. Of those who do get in trouble again, it is mostly because of breaching a condition. If they are going to commit a criminal offence, it is usually non –violent • Those who are held in until the law says to release- are not a successful • Is this because, we hold on to those that look unsuccessful long OR is it because the longer we hold someone, it helps them be successful. • Breaching conditions is the most common reason for having your parole revoked. • 99% of violence is committed by plp who are NOT ON PAROLE Do we have to release everybody? • Serious offences- maybe they may not be released at the 2/3 point. • 96% of the hearing, the offender was held. Correctional service Canada  if they suggest not to let them out, the national parole board listens to them • When plp are held till the end, there is no supervision, or conditions, they are fully free to go. Some plp are going to be released on parole, and they are going to commit another offence. BUT WE ARE NOT GOOD AT PREDICTING WHOSE GOING TO OFFEND AND WHOSE NOT GOING TO. • RISK FACTORS- tools are not reliable- not good at guessing whose going to be successful and whose going to fail if released on parole. STUDY: • Three groups: poor risk and fair-poor risk and fair to a good risk • Followed for three yearsthose predicted to be a poor risk, who we thought were going to fail, 62% succeeded. Those who we thought were good and not going to commit another crime, 12% failed. Faint hope clause: SOC219: Lecture 9 • Have to spend 15 years in custody before they can apply for parole. It was possible for these offenders to apply to court and ask to reduce the time for eligibility period. Those convicted of multiple murders were not allowed to apply. Even if the court decided that an offender is eligible for early parole, juries were needed so 12 plp had to make the decision in order to be eligible for early parole = NOT A SIMPLE PROCESS. No longer after year 2011. It began in 1987. • 800 offenders, 300 whom are eligible, 178 applied and 145 received a shorter eligibility. • This program is because; the offender can have dramatically changed over the long period of time they are in prison. So this is some mechanism to go back and change the eligibility of parole. Offenders may change from treatment and other programs while in prison over years. • More than 50% released on parole are kicked back into the system IN US. It turns out, parole has become an enforcement mechanism- job is to police those coming out of custody but parole is more than enforcement, more than making sure that someone doesn’t commit another crime. It is designed for reintegrating purposes to help get housing, job, etc. If we only focus on enforcement, we should not be surprised that many plp fail. • We are able to make parole more successful. • Success on parole is related to: economic disadvantage neighborhood, poverty, no social services-if returning back to a bad neighborhood then more likely to be re-arrested. STUDY: • Most plp returned back to the neighborhood back to their old one. Those returned to new neighborhood were more successful on parole than those who returned back to their old neighborhood. Aboriginal People SOC219: Lecture 9 • Overrepresentation of them in custodial institution. • Funding for education for aboriginal children- per child the govern gives soo much money but if they live on reserve, they get very little money. Argument is that whether or not your aboriginal or living on reserve or not, they should get the same money • Idle nomore • International body that overseas all country, looked at Canada and said the way you treat aboriginal plp is a crisis. Jonathan who is leader – says more aboriginal kids are in jail, or foster care than in residential school. • CJS-treats aboriginal more harshly if they reoffend then how it treats other plp. • 23% in federal custody are aboriginal. The aboriginal population in the country is only 3%. • Aboriginal plp in canada  1 in 4 in custody is metis innuit or first nations. • 40% increase in rate at which we incarcerate aboriginal plp from 2001. Aboriginal plp are sentenced to longer terms in custody, more segregation in custody, housed to max security, less likely to be granted parole, and more likely to have their parole revoked for minor offences. History • No unified position… all indigenous plp- they were in Canada first, it is their land and country- referred to status and non- status Indians, metis, and Inuit plp. • Aboriginal plp were described an intelligent and peaceful plp, any overt expression of anger is characteristically inhibited so they will not express anger outside. If there was an argument, you simply split apart and go your own way, instead of fighting. This description disappeared with the intrusion of white dominant culture. Assimilation SOC219: Lecture 9 • Creation of residential school system- taken away from parents, not allowed to speak own language, own clothes, practice own culture have to be practiced as white- characterized by sexual, cultural abuse. o Complete destruction of aboriginal culture, and end the traditional way of life. o Entire generation robbed of what it means to have parents- so these children separated from parents do not know how to parent their own children. Their parent was the school that sexually abused them. • Artificial communities- given a portion of the place, it doesn’t matter if they once owned the whole country o Reserves are up in isolated communities. Some locations are only accessible by air, not by road. o Urban pop of aboriginal who do not live on reserves. o Poor and substantial housing o No plumping, electricity, running water o Aboriginal have poor health – consequence of low socio economic status, lack of clean healthy water, lack of food. o They have high rates of substance abuse. o Low levels of formal education o Little employment- 80% unemployment rates- no jobs, no infrastructure o High concerns around suicides among teenage pop. • Conservative party of 1968 of federal election  half of aboriginal learned less than $1000 a year, 40% on welfare or govern assistance, hospitalized more than the regular population, life expectstcy is short, and high infant mortality (infants dying in the 1 year of their life). • VERY LITTLE HAS CHANGED. CURRENT SITUATION IS STILL NOT ANY BETTER • Difficulty- solutions to these problems- huge systematic problems so not going to be short term or quick fix. • Problem- we are not good at thinking about long term solutions. The election is every 4 years so it takes a lot of resources, and takes those with power giving up some of what they have and their privileges. • If we are really serious about changing aboriginals’ case in the CJS, have to face our racisms, and accept our responsibility for what we have done. Everyone is going to have to make sacrificeuncomfortable questions for us. • Race is not predictive of crime, but poverty is. One’s race does SOC219: Lecture 9 not make you more or less likely to commit a crime but poverty has an impact. • When talking about black or aboriginal plp in CJS- it is
More Less

Related notes for SOC219H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.