SOC219: Lecture 7
• General crime rate going up until early 1990
• Canada there has been a stable stability in incarceration rate.
• No research that links crime and incarceration
• Talk about remand pop- maybe that’s what increasing the
• Crime is a prevention mechanism
• All research indicates deterrence does not work.
• There is no causation between crime and imprisonment.
• Findings from social survey- Canadian pop think sentences are
too lenient but we have differences across racial group and age
• Public thinks about the worst-case scenario.
• What has the public been told about sentences
• Public overestimates the rate of recidivism rate
• When providing info about costs, it changes plps perceptions
• More likely to sentence in a lenient way than judge police-when
given context info
• Simple questions asked mean simple answers- complexities in
• If we educated the public, then more likely to believe that CJS is
effective in meeting it’s purposes
• Police – reactive rather than preventive
• Entire year- officer places less than 9 charges
• Adding police does not mean its effective
• Crime is independent of police
• Profiling – challenges with the definition
• Defining denominator- what population are we talking about
• Study- that looks at license plate and how certain plp were
stopped based on whether they are from white or black city.
• Study- differential drug use and which drug use is targeted by
• Why remand pop increasing? Changes in the credit SOC219: Lecture 7
• Charges are more complex so takes more time
• Police don’t want to make the wrong decision so they hold it for
• Reverse onus position- put the onus in position and asks why
they should be released.
• Easier to see the benefits of holding someone in custody, rather
than taking the risk of sending them out
• Domestic violence: historically DV is not considered a police
problem- was a private problem. So shifted to now to be a
• Have to look at history of violence, how frequent, how serious is
• When talk to victims- they don’t want accuse to be arrested, but
just want the violence in the immediate moment to stop
• Biggest factor predicting violence- victim is best to know whether
it’s going to happen again.
• Positive impact with reporting to police- this reduces the
prevalence of recidivism, actually intervention itself has no
impact- does not matter about what the police does, but just
letting the police know is effective.
• Study: importance of victim’s cooperation- if they don’t then
likelihood of conviction goes down.
• If its mandatory police- police does not have to decide whether
to charge or not. This means every domestic situation would
result in charge. But should the victim have a say? But this
brings up questions about whether the victim is freely saying
• Challenge about Mandatory policies- police may have to charge
both because they cannot figure out who is the aggressive- may
end up increasing the rate of domestic charges.
• Difference in environment or plp? What leads the prison to be as
place known for high levels of violence, threat, intimidation, and
high levels of substance abuse.
o Violence plp from outside put inside, then obviously there’s
going to be violence inside
o Authority of the institution- telling plp when it is they can
do things for every day things- prison disturbances are the
result of managerial problems or poorly runned institution, SOC219: Lecture 7
maybe they don’t feel autonomous.
o Study : looked at prolonged riot, disturbances, non violent
protest. They tries to measure how well the institution
functioned, how often the institution was put in lockdown
(kept in cell for the whole day).
o Result: disturbances did not occur when prison staff
worked well with the management. No disturbances if
avoided criminal element or organizations in the
institutions making rival gang members not together.
When there is a descent relationship between prisoners
and correctional authorities.
• Case study: looking at two prison riots in two diff institutions
o One, had 20,000 inmates and they had new management
in 1998, staff worked well, if prisoners were disruption the
response came quickly after the behavior so they know
there is a certainty about what will happen for doing a
behavior. Charges for high, but prisoners thought it was
fair because if they imposed a new rule, everyone was told
the rule before hand.
o Second, runned by poor staffs, conditions in wages was not
good so lead to frustration with workers and
administrators. Rules would change without any notice, or
expectation so prisoners had no idea of the expectations,
and no certainty so drinking was okay for one prisoner but
not for another.
Prison itself lead to disturbances?
• Ontario has none
• Imposing punishment – part of the states power and function.
But if its private, is there a change in the legitimacy?
• What if private is runned differently? SO more inmate then more
they get paid- does that bring up an issue?
• Solitary confinement- cell with nothing in it (mattress, bed) does
it change when it is a private organization using that punishment
• Force? How much force can they use? Raises legitimate
challenges and moral dilemma
• Cost more money to serve in higher classification. Who decides
when transferring prisons across institutions (keeping easier
prisoners so it’s cheaper to keep them and kicking the hard
• Difficulty- private sector runs like a business- so administering SOC219: Lecture 7
punishment or justice with the incentive to making money
leads to paying staff less money, reduce quality of food, get rid
of programs, lose social workers, less benefits for staff.
• Private organization pays for their own evaluation so is that an
• What type of public accountability ? deaths in custody
• Lead to forced labor= having inmates work while in custody. If its
government that wage is used for the institution or program but
if its private
• Staffing, who provides training, what happens when you bring
down wages, and who would be applying for jobs that are giving
very low wages?-->plp who need jobs
• Private- plp often hired and quit- that changes stability and work
environment when plp are changing.
• More successful escapes in private- maybe they didn’t pay
enough for security camera, staff. Maybe not enough staff or
qualified staff that can indicate that somebody is planning to
• More drugs used in private- conducted random analysis and drug
use is higher in private institutions
o Not much diff between private and public institution.
Recidivism may be higher is released from private facility
than public. WHY?
o Because of the environment of private institution. Private is
cheaper to operate on day to day base but if it results in
higher rate of recidivism, are we really saving money
o Implemented by conservative govern experiment
compared two facilities that were same size, same security
classification but one was private and publically operated.
Result- cost were similar between the two, government
decided not to renew contract and after that no private in