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Lecture 7

Soc219-Lecture 7.doc

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Natasha Myers

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SOC219: Lecture 7 Midterm corrections: 1a) • General crime rate going up until early 1990 • Canada there has been a stable stability in incarceration rate. • No research that links crime and incarceration • Talk about remand pop- maybe that’s what increasing the incarceration population • Crime is a prevention mechanism • All research indicates deterrence does not work. • There is no causation between crime and imprisonment. 1b) • Findings from social survey- Canadian pop think sentences are too lenient but we have differences across racial group and age group. • Public thinks about the worst-case scenario. • What has the public been told about sentences • Public overestimates the rate of recidivism rate • When providing info about costs, it changes plps perceptions • More likely to sentence in a lenient way than judge police-when given context info • Simple questions asked mean simple answers- complexities in publics views • If we educated the public, then more likely to believe that CJS is effective in meeting it’s purposes 2a) • Police – reactive rather than preventive • Entire year- officer places less than 9 charges • Adding police does not mean its effective • Crime is independent of police 2b) • Profiling – challenges with the definition • Defining denominator- what population are we talking about • Study- that looks at license plate and how certain plp were stopped based on whether they are from white or black city. • Study- differential drug use and which drug use is targeted by police 3a) • Why remand pop increasing? Changes in the credit SOC219: Lecture 7 • Charges are more complex so takes more time • Police don’t want to make the wrong decision so they hold it for court-risk avoidance • Reverse onus position- put the onus in position and asks why they should be released. • Easier to see the benefits of holding someone in custody, rather than taking the risk of sending them out 3b) • Domestic violence: historically DV is not considered a police problem- was a private problem. So shifted to now to be a mandatory policy • Have to look at history of violence, how frequent, how serious is the violence • When talk to victims- they don’t want accuse to be arrested, but just want the violence in the immediate moment to stop • Biggest factor predicting violence- victim is best to know whether it’s going to happen again. • Positive impact with reporting to police- this reduces the prevalence of recidivism, actually intervention itself has no impact- does not matter about what the police does, but just letting the police know is effective. • Study: importance of victim’s cooperation- if they don’t then likelihood of conviction goes down. • If its mandatory police- police does not have to decide whether to charge or not. This means every domestic situation would result in charge. But should the victim have a say? But this brings up questions about whether the victim is freely saying their wishes. • Challenge about Mandatory policies- police may have to charge both because they cannot figure out who is the aggressive- may end up increasing the rate of domestic charges. Prison disturbances • Difference in environment or plp? What leads the prison to be as place known for high levels of violence, threat, intimidation, and high levels of substance abuse. o Violence plp from outside put inside, then obviously there’s going to be violence inside o Authority of the institution- telling plp when it is they can do things for every day things- prison disturbances are the result of managerial problems or poorly runned institution, SOC219: Lecture 7 maybe they don’t feel autonomous. o Study : looked at prolonged riot, disturbances, non violent protest. They tries to measure how well the institution functioned, how often the institution was put in lockdown (kept in cell for the whole day). o Result: disturbances did not occur when prison staff worked well with the management. No disturbances if avoided criminal element or organizations in the institutions making rival gang members not together. When there is a descent relationship between prisoners and correctional authorities. • Case study: looking at two prison riots in two diff institutions o One, had 20,000 inmates and they had new management in 1998, staff worked well, if prisoners were disruption the response came quickly after the behavior so they know there is a certainty about what will happen for doing a behavior. Charges for high, but prisoners thought it was fair because if they imposed a new rule, everyone was told the rule before hand. o Second, runned by poor staffs, conditions in wages was not good so lead to frustration with workers and administrators. Rules would change without any notice, or expectation so prisoners had no idea of the expectations, and no certainty so drinking was okay for one prisoner but not for another.  Prison itself lead to disturbances? Private prisons: • Ontario has none • Imposing punishment – part of the states power and function. But if its private, is there a change in the legitimacy? • What if private is runned differently? SO more inmate then more they get paid- does that bring up an issue? • Solitary confinement- cell with nothing in it (mattress, bed) does it change when it is a private organization using that punishment • Force? How much force can they use? Raises legitimate challenges and moral dilemma • Cost more money to serve in higher classification. Who decides when transferring prisons across institutions (keeping easier prisoners so it’s cheaper to keep them and kicking the hard prisoners out) • Difficulty- private sector runs like a business- so administering SOC219: Lecture 7 punishment or justice with the incentive to making money  leads to paying staff less money, reduce quality of food, get rid of programs, lose social workers, less benefits for staff. • Private organization pays for their own evaluation so is that an objective evaluation • What type of public accountability ? deaths in custody • Lead to forced labor= having inmates work while in custody. If its government that wage is used for the institution or program but if its private Problems- • Staffing, who provides training, what happens when you bring down wages, and who would be applying for jobs that are giving very low wages?-->plp who need jobs • Private- plp often hired and quit- that changes stability and work environment when plp are changing. • More successful escapes in private- maybe they didn’t pay enough for security camera, staff. Maybe not enough staff or qualified staff that can indicate that somebody is planning to escape • More drugs used in private- conducted random analysis and drug use is higher in private institutions • Recidivism? o Not much diff between private and public institution. Recidivism may be higher is released from private facility than public. WHY? o Because of the environment of private institution. Private is cheaper to operate on day to day base but if it results in higher rate of recidivism, are we really saving money • STUDY: o Implemented by conservative govern experiment compared two facilities that were same size, same security classification but one was private and publically operated. Result- cost were similar between the two, government decided not to renew contract and after that no private in
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