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Lecture 3

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Nicole Myers

Lecture 3 May-13-13 Policing Defining Police, Policing  Organization or function?  Function o Other actors assigned from actual police officers that conduct policing like activities  Legislation o Puts it all in place o Other rules that police officers are required to pilot o Enforcing a level of the criminal code o Police officers are subject to Police Services Act  Stipulates a number of things that police officers are not supposed to do  Employs higher number of sanctions on an officer if they behave in an inappropriate way  They may not have committed a criminal offence per say, but they will be held accountable for the police services act o Highway Traffic Act o Drug and Substances Act  Organizations – Police? o Municipal/Regional  Toronto Police  Peel Police  Diff levels of jurisdictions  OPP in city of Toronto  Highways  Legislature o Hybrid  Not attached to a municipality  Restrictions on what they are able to do  UofT Police o Specialized Police  Thesis or central intelligence  Not in uniform or driving around in cruisers  Policing on national type of level o Military police  Have their own police force  On base, they are the officers  Jurisdiction  Find when they are on base o Civil servants Who police things   Tax officials  Make sure you're paying your taxes how you're supposed to  At level of policing o External Policing  No jurisdiction here in Canada  But we hear a great deal about CIA, FBI in United States ------------------------- Private Policing  Hired by private organization  Serve different roles  Non-state police (‘private security’)  People at the mall  People who sit at front of condos  Different role o Make sure doors are locked o Unauthorised people are not inside  Different concerns o Protection of private property  Focus on prevention  Different issues o Does not mean they can't arrest or confront citizens o DO NOT have guns  More limited use of force o Have different levels of legitimacy in somebody's eyes? o Regard a mall security officer the same way as a public police officer? o Most get paid minimum wage o Compensation?  Effect on duty?  Willing to confront and protect property they're supposed to? o Training?  Hybrid example: University of Toronto police o Not simply people identified as private security o May be integrated into institution  Other functions  Function of policing – can be accomplished in various ways ------------------------- Role of “Ordinary” Police  Apprehending suspects  Find people who did it  Information gatherers and providers  Provide people with a service  Connect people with resources  Mediate disputes  General deterrence function  If eliminated entire justice system, we will do it more  If eliminated all police officers, we will commit more crimes  Law enforcement  Act of a fact  order maintenance  Being called in for preventative measures  At concerts: o Fights don't break out, if they do, they are able to intervene  Restoring order (utside of criminal law )  Re-establishing peace --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Police and Crime, Ontario (2009) Crime incidents reported to police: 688,700 Number of youths & adults charged: 229,623 26,361 Number of police officers: 26.1 Incidents reported to police per police officer: Persons charged per police officer: 8.7  Point:  Whole bunch of work that police officers do ha, nothing to do with crime  Offence is not serious enough to send through the formal system  *Order maintenance*  Police and their ability to have an impact on crime ,t doesn’t look like they do very much --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Policing Function, Budgets  Like sending people to jail, we have to pay for this  Police paid for from tax dollars In early 2011, again in late 20s following, comes time for the city budgets to start being put together for the next year, in terms of fiscal austerity (This is a period of adverse economic conditions where the government cuts its spending or increases taxes in order to reduce its budget deficit), there is no more money to pay for things, we have to start scaling back. In Toronto, City Hall told police(Chief Bill Blair), "You need to cut your budget back", first time around, he comes back and asks for a 3% increase. We need more money. This is public safety. We're talking about more money for police as a safety. This is law and order. This is going after criminals. This is making sure that you're safe at night. What price tags you put on your safety. Why do we need to increase the budget?  We have more officers, means we have to pay more  Why are they paid so much? o It’s a dangerous job o Pay people well so they are not as corrupt  Pay people more so they are more honourable at what they are doing o Compensation for not working normal hours, being away from family for long periods of time = Shift work  Sunshine List:  The number of public s-ctor workers earning more than $100 000 h,s grown the pro,incial government's latest "sunshine list" reveals.  We should know how many people that are being paid by tax dollars are earning more than $100k/year  Last year, 3200 police officers and civilian employees of the police services made more than $100k in Ontario See Toronto Star – Toronto Police Budget - ‘issue of public safety’ - 2013 budget- $927.8-million  Are the right questions being asked?  What are the choices?  Do we have any other options?  How do we evaluate the police/ need for police?  Money well spent?  Does more officers reduce crime? --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Would Increasing Police Budgets Reduce Crime?  U.S. federal special funding of municipal police forces ($8.8 billion, 1995-2000)  Goal of government: hire 100,000 more police officers for the country  Distributed Non-Randomly o Every location didn't get the same number of officers o Smaller places probably got none  Challenge to identify possible effects: control for other factors  Did this have an effect on crime? o Have to remember:  Crime was already declining before this happened  Funding varied across locations  Think about: o Pre-existing funding levels in the areas that got more police. We don’t know how many they already had o Standard Correlates Crime: - The things that we KNOW are related to crime  Poverty  Unemployment  Housing Issues  Lack of education  No consistent effects – equally likely more / less crime – after controlling for annual fiscal expenditures and other factors.  Some places that got more police officers, crime rate went UP  Some places that got more police officers, crime rate continued to go down  Why would you expect a few additional police to make a difference?  Why would you expect a few additional police decrease crimes?  If anything, if more officers, there should be more crimes because there are more officers to witness crimes  On a national scale, crime rate kept going down even though the US got 100,000 more police officers  Strength of police service per se may not be very important (within normal bounds)  Simply adding a couple more isn't going to have an impact  Just because we are adding more, doesn’t mean they are going to do their jobs more effectively  Maybe they weren't hired to fight crime, maybe they were hired to do other things  Is crime reduction an appropriate way to try and measure their effectiveness --------------------------------------------------------------------------- What question does a study like this answer?  Additional police officers does not make communities safer ?  It depends on the size of the intervention and now that you've scattered them all the way across a country, it’s a little foolish to think we're going to see a reduction in crime  How were they deployed?  Would you expect ‘overall’ effect of police strength?  Note the problem of earlier trend data  in police officers since 1998 Increase Decrease in crime since 1998 (but decrease started: 1991) in police officers (1991-97) and decrease in crime. But - decrease  HAVE TO LOOK AT PRE-EXISTING TRENDS  If you don’t, run the risk of making false conclusions ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What about effects of police deployment on more ‘ordinary’ crime? “Hot spots” o Particular area might be crime prone, a lot of crimes happening o Bring a bunch of officers and heighten concentration of officers and should be able to clean up the area  Seems to have an impact as long as the police are PHYSICALLY there or PERCEIVED to be there.  Issue of displacement: Doesn’t displace in simple geographic way (e.g., to neighbouring locations).  Criminals shift location to elsewhere  Any deterrent effect (as a result of increase in perceived likelihood of apprehension[being caught]) may last longer than the increased policing. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Study in Pittsburgh, US: Trying to evaluate police effectiveness in terms of Gun Crime Presence (or presumed presence) of police and gun violence  Dealing with gun violence by general deterrence  Work on ‘certainty’ rather than ‘severity’? o Increasing the perception that if you commit a gun crime, you are going to be caught  Deter high risk people from carrying guns.  Process:  Increased police presence 20 5-% in high risk areas during high crime periods cer(ain times /ays ).  Highlighted a number of high risk areas  Depending on the area, they increased the police presence by 20-50% over what would normally be in this area  Police were very physically present at the times when gun crimes tended to be higher  Police were not to respond to any normal calls for service - specifically there to address the gun problem - not any other calls  Performed traffic stops, stop and talks with pedestrians who were to be of high risk  And then conducted a number of comparisons (before the hotspot and after the hotspot was done)  Compared to neighbouring areas that were not subject to hotspot interventions  Compared to high prime times and low prime times of the day  Measure the level of assault related gunshot injuries or reports of shots fired  Increased police presence 20 5-% in high risk areas during high crime periods cer(ain times /ays ).  Larger decreases in the densely-patrolled areas during times of high police concentration. Worked during the time and in the places that the police were present  Increase the likely hood of getting caught, it does have the power to shift peoples' behaviour --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Related approaches: Use of Police Presence in High Crime Areas  Typically – ‘Crackdowns’ happen in cities/locations with ‘spike’ in crime.  "Crackdowns": An act or example of forceful regulation, repression, or restraint: a crackdown on crime. o Happen in places where the is high crime o The trouble is when trying to find the appropriate comparison area that is NOT going to receive the intervention o What we have to be concerned about is the statistical term called "regression to the mean"(things tend to come down to the average)  Everything that goes way up, has to come down  Everything that goes way down, has to come up  Overtime, tend to average out  Concern  When you intervene and someone has already got a lot of crime or a particular type of crime is really high, it's possible that even the absence of an intervention, it would have just started to come down on its own. We TEND to intervene when things are really bad, there's a possibility that we’re then crediting an intervention and bringing things down when they would have
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