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Lecture 5

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Jayne Baker

Lecture 5- February 4, 2013 Worksheet from last week  Nominal level of measurement: different categories (i.e. gender)  Ordinal: ranking categories (grade definition)  Interval: numerical and no true zero and distance can be measured between points of measurement  Ratio: true zero, numerical values  Discrete and continuous variables Sampling—Who do you study?  Sample: a smaller set of cases a researcher selects from a larger pool of people.  Subset of target population  Sampling applies to quantitative and qualitative methods Qualitative Sampling “Non-random sampling” or “nonprobability sampling”  Random- sample chosen through mathematical procedure  1) Haphazard sampling  i.e. interviews on TV  no logic behind who you sample, usually who you see first  sign of poor research  2)Quota sampling  Target population and draw sample from there  Researcher decides ahead of time what qualities from sample they are interested in and how many people from each category they would want to include in their study (quota)  3) Purposive sampling  Guided by some larger purpose  Know who they want to sample and go after that particular population  4) Snowball sampling  Begin with a small number of cases, leading to other cases  Idea that you start with few cases and those few cases lead to another case (person) and so on  Used for populations that are difficult to access (i.e. elites difficult to access for research purposes)  Also used for hidden population- i.e. deviant, or underground population (difficulty in access)  5) Sequential sampling  Know ahead of time who you are interested in (don’t know how many you want )  Don’t stop until there is no production of new information  Like purposive, until you’re not getting any new information from the data  “Theoretical saturation” (idea that data is saturated; not learning anything new- data collection
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