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Lecture 8

Lecture 8- March 18.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Jayne Baker

Experimental Methods Lecture 8: March 18, 2013 Types of Experiments • Laboratory experiment: • High degree of control over the setting, artificial setting • Field experiment • Less control over the setting, natural setting • Go to where the subjects are- lack of control over the environment • Examining how people behave if no one was observing them • i.e. used by criminologists- tells us about bystander effect • Natural experiment • Natural change in society takes place, can measure before and after What is your question? • Emphasis is on causal relations • Causal relationship needs to be testable • Which question is appropriate? • Do university students commit suicide less frequently when they have more official breaks during a semester? • Causal relationship between breaks and suicide rates • Do people who go to university develop coping skills which help them through times of crisis? • University experience and crisis coping skills • Do people who complete a university education increase their annual income more than people who do not? • Completing university education and increasing annual income Features of Design Do university students commit suicide less frequently when they have more official breaks during a semester? • Control Group – universities without additional holidays • Experimental Group • Independent Variable- number of breaks • Dependent Variable – variable that is expected to change as result of manipulating independent variable- rates of suicide • Pretest • Post-test – rates of suicides and number of br
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