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Lecture 5

SOC263 SOCIAL INEQUALITY LECTURE 5- RACE AND ETHNICITY

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC221H5
Professor
All

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LECTURE 5: RACE, ETHNICITY, AND SOCIAL INEQUALITY Race and Ethnicity 1. What is Race? a. Sociological definitions of race:  i. Phenotypically differences – skin colour,  ii. “Visible minority”­  iii. a continuum of differences  b. race as a biology: there is no biological basis for race c. race is a social construction: which puts people in a “box”/ “categories”, based on their physical  differences (such as skin colour, hair, eyes, etc.)  i. social construction= very hard to dislodge ii. ideas, practices, structure that make racial categories meaningful in everyday life iii. A concept which symbolize and signifies social conflict – racial formation (p71)  iv. d. Quandaries of race: i. The problem of reification: Should we abandon race 1. Biological ideas become the basis to the social construct of race, where it is  institutionalized.  ii. Racialization­ the process of constructing racial categories, so that we can analyze the process of  turning a group into a marginalize (see. Notes from the prof.)  1. E.g : racialization of Muslims  ▯a Muslim who believes x,y,z who oppress women, and  there’s a need for these women to be “rescued” by white people.  2. Canadians  ▯60 % visible minority (phenotypically different from white), 4% aboriginal  pop, all these estimates are rising  2. What is Ethnicity? a. Race subcategories of ethnicity  b. Sociological knowledge production: the three theorist we’ll talk about is American ▯ race= Slavery,  multiple races  c. Canadian’s diversity= immigrants (­ion)  d. Weber: ethnicity (p 68)  i. Social constructed based on: language, customs, beliefs, etc. ii. Ultimately leads to inclusion and exclusion in a group based on such differences  iii. (p.68­69):  1. Common/shared customs, beliefs 2. Myth of common descent  3. Phenotypically differences and economical difference, occupation = becomes a marker of  difference  3. Explaining Racial Inequality:  ­ evidence of racial inequality: employment, unemployment and participation rates o Participation rates: similar  o Employment: similar o Unemployment: racialized people have a higher rate of unemployment, than those o Income: non­racialized earn an ave. of income f/t  earn : 66,401 (M), for racialized man – 50,612 a. Racial Formation (Michael Omi, Howard Winant)  (p.71)  i. Definition:  the social­historical processes by which social categories are created, inhabited,  transformed and destroyed.  1. Created: Irish: race, inhabited “Irish life”, transformed­ became “white”, and  2. How do this process occur?   ii. Core arguments: concepts of “hegemony” and racial projects 1. Hegemony ▯“taken for granted practices and assumptions that make domination seem  natural and inevitable to both the dominant and subordinate” (Glenn 1999, 13. See
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