OCTOBER 2, 2013
Chapter 6: Qualitative and Quantitative Measurement
What are the quantitative researchers concerned about in social research?
What are qualitative researchers concerned about in social research?
Precise measurement for fuzzy concepts ?
o how to measure class? Income, Occupation
o pineo porters scale and the Blishen scale are
two operationalizations of social class that are widely used in Canada
o Pineo Porters scale: occupational prestige scale for social standing
o Blishen scale : a socioeconomic index of occupations that takes occupation,
education, and earnings into account in its operationalization.
Quantitative and Qualitative measurement
o Both use careful, systematic methods to gather higherquality data
• Quantitative research think about variables and convert
them into specific actions during a planning stage that
occurs before and is separate from gathering or analyzing
Parts of the measurement process:
Construct: the terms CONCEPT, CONSTRUCT, AND IDEA.
Terms to remember (p.104105)
How to develop a conceptual definition of the construct prejudice? (p.105)
personal experience and deep thinking
discussion with others
use existing scholarly literature
Discussion of example
e.g PREJUDICE An attitude about the members of another group▯negative
can ask on: racialethnic groups, age groups, religious groups, gender groups and
How to develop a conceptual definition of the construct prejudice?
refer to the note above* You must distinguish your construct from closely related ones, e.g “how is
prejudice similar to or different from ideas such as discrimination,
stereotyping, or racism”
Quantitative conceptualization and operationalization
the measurement process for quantitative: straight forward sequence
o conceptualization▯operationalization▯application of the operational
definition or measuring data collected
*refer to page 107, figure 6.1 Conceptualization and Operationalization
Qualitative conceptualizations and operationalization: (see p. 108/study of exotic
dancers in Canada)
1. Conceptualization process▯ refine preliminary “working ideas” during data
collection and analysis process
2. Qualitative researcher: gather data▯analyze data▯develop new ideas▯formulate
definitions for the concepts, and ▯ consider relationships among the concepts
3. Operationalization process: researcher forms conceptual definitions out of
rudimentary/preliminary “working ideas” that s/he got or used while making
observations of gathering data, and operationalizes by describing how specific
observations and thoughts about the data contributed to working ideas that are the
basis of conceptual definitions and theoretical concepts
Reliability and Validity
Are both central issues in all measurement.
Both concern how concretes measures are connected to constructs.
a. Reliability ▯ dependability or consistency of measure of a variable
b. Validity ▯ “