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John Kervin

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SOC 222 – MEASURING THE SOCIAL WORLD INTRO to the COURSE Session #1 Sep 13 Topics: Painting Clicker Demo Numbers Statistics and Data Analysis Job Skills Stats Anxiety Rusty Arithmetic Course Information Lectures and Tutorials Clickers Questions SPSS Goals for Today 1. Levels of Measurement Ratio Ordinal Nominal Dichotomy Why Does This Matter? 2. Relationships • Causation and Correlation • The Two Key Questions 3. Using SPSS 1. Starting It Up 2. SPSS Data Sets 3. Running a scatterplot Readings: Linneman: ch. 1 Kranzler: section 1 Intro, ch. 1, ch. 3, ch. 4:30-33; optional ch. 2 STATISTICS and DATA ANALYSIS Rusty Arithmetic? A Useful Math Rule ♦ All squared numbers are positive (-x)= x2 3 = 9 -3 = 9 ♦ Also check summation rules ∑ How to add up what follows the summation sign See Kranzler, p. 24 COURSE INFORMATION 1. Lectures and tutorials ♦ Announcements at start ♦ Session outlines posted each week ♦ Tests in each tutorial ♦ Tests conducted on BlackBoard ♦ Best 10 of 12 ♦ Must attend the tutorial you registered in ♦ Otherwise you won’t be able to take the test, or have your mark entered 2. Clickers ♦ For feedback 3. Questions 4. SPSS GOALS for TODAY (Topics of test tom) 1. Levels of measurement 2. Causation and correlation 3. Descriptive and inferential statistics 4. Basic SPSS 1. LEVELS of MEASUREMENT What is “level of measurement”? • Use numbers to measure and we use numbers to mean different things (ratio, ordinal, dichotomy, nominal) Ratio • (zero means something in terms of ratio measures) ♦ Counts or quantities ♦ Meaningful “zero” ♦ Math: ♦ Add, subtract, multiply, divide ♦ Rank order ♦ Compare Or•iRank orders, relative quantities/amounts, more or less or same as something as well ♦ Relative quantities ♦ Math: can do two things with ordinals in math, but can’t add/subtract/etc. ♦ Rank order ♦ Compare Nominal (ex. Assigning numbers to religion, so 1= Christian, 2 = Hindu, etc.) ♦ Similarities and differences ♦ Math: ♦ Compare (equal or not equal and can’t say more or les) Dichotomy ♦ Only two categories (ex. Male or female, profit or non-profit organization) ♦ Can be simplifications ♦ Math: ♦ Add, subtract, multiply, divide ♦ Rank order ♦ Compare Why Does This Matter? • The meaning of the numbers and levels of measurements determine the what kind of operation you can do and what you can’t do • SPSS; automatically tries to figure out level of measurement you are using (level of measurement = scale) 2. RELATIONSHIPS • Example- does poverty effect internet use Research question Causation and Correlation ♦ Three criteria to establish causality: 1. Time order (x has to come before y) 2. Covariation (as x change, y changes in systematic fashion. Correlation) as poverty decreases, internet use increases? 3. Not spurious (check to ensure that third variable isn’t involved) ♦ Statistics is about covariation (in this course) The Two Key Questions ♦ Descriptive statistics: ♦ How strong is the relationship? Weak (trivial) or strong ♦ Inferential statistics: ♦ Could the relationship be the result of a bad sample? ♦ non-representative sample (representative sample = good) DEMO: USING SPSS: SPSS BASICS 1. Starting It Up Here are the steps for opening and running SPSS from a computer lab: 1. Turn on computer & monitor screen (if dark, press any key) 2. CNTL-ALT-DEL to log on with your username and password 3. You get a welcome screen, “Preparing your desktop…” 4. Two ways to get to SPSS: 1. If there’s an icon already on the desktop (round, blue, with some math symbols) • Click it 2. Click Start icon (bottom left), All programs, Course Applications, IBM SPSS 5. If you get a “Windows Script Host” notice window, just close it. 6. SPSS starts and gives you a Welcome Window • Five boxes in the window • Most important is SPSS Tutorials. Check out these: Introduction, Reading Data (Basic Structure). 7. Close the Welcome Window (if you don’t want a tutorial). • You’re left with an empty data set window. • The bottom left box (orange) will say “Data View” Now you’re ready for working with a data set. 2. SPSS Data Sets A blank data set consists of rows (CASES, e.g., persons, cities) and columns (VARIABLES, e.g., age, size). • Each cell is the value of a particular variable for a particular case. Here are the steps for filling a data set with data. You have two options: 1. Get a data set that already exists (on course Blackboard web site) 2. Enter the data yourself, cell by cell. Get Existing Data Typically, you want either: • A data set posted on Blackbo
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