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Sociology
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SOC222H5
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John Kervin
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Sociology

SOC222H5

John Kervin

Fall

Description

SOC 222 -- MEASURING the SOCIAL WORLD
TABLES -- Session #2
Sep 16/2013
Topics:
Review
Today’s Objectives
Frequency Distributions
Frequency Distributions in SPSS
Crosstabulations of Two Variables
Percentaging Tables
Elaboration: Adding a Third Variable
Graphs: Bar Charts
Bar Charts for Frequency Distributions
Bar Charts for Crosstabs
Readings:
Linneman, ch. 2
1. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS
Frequency distributions tell us the number of cases
• In each category
• Of a category variable
Why would we look at just one variable?
1. Variation: does the variable change or does it remain the same. If there is a variation,
then it can co-vary with another variable that also varies (change systematically and
check for correlation).
2. Distribution: to look into the distribution out of interest. Just want to know the
distribution
Here’s the distribution of marks for test #1:
SOC 222: Frequency Distribution of Marks for Test #1
Letter
Grade Frequency Percentage
A 54 40.0 B 42 31.1
C 31 23.0
D 6 4.4
F 2 1.5
Total 135 100.0
Source: BlackBoard
The table shows:
Do the marks for test # 1 have enough variation to be used as a variable? Yes, not everyone
(or even close) to being in the same category. When looking at distribution within the category
to state that there is variation in the grades (so not everyone is getting the same grades)
Frequency Distributions in SPSS
New data set: “Students-1”
New document on web site: SPSS Frequency Distributions
Questions:
• Which departments were students in?
• How many in each dept.? Enough variation to use as a variable?
In SPSS:
“Analyze” dropdown menu
“Descriptive statistics”
“Frequencies”
This opens a box called “Frequencies”
• On the left: List of variable labels
• Variable names (depart) VS variable labels (Department)
• In the lists, the variable name is given in [ ] square brackets!
• Below the variable list: a check box: IGNORE
• In the middle: an empty working area called “Variable(s)”
• Option buttons on the right: IGNORE
• Action buttons on the bottom
• OK to make the table
• RESET to start over again
TRICK: Expand the box sideways to read the variable labels
Click on the variable you want
Click on the arrow to move it to the Variables area (OR drag and drop)
Click on OK This opens your output window, and there’s your frequency distribution table.
Department
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Chem Eng 29 10.2 10.2 10.2
Elec and Comp Eng 47 16.5 16.5 26.8
East Asian Studies 39 13.7 13.7 40.5
English 20 7.0 7.0 47.5
Microbiology 63 22.2 22.2 69.7
Botany 19 6.7 6.7 76.4
Geography 11 3.9 3.9 80.3
Economics 38 13.4 13.4 93.7
Sociology 18 6.3 6.3 100.0
Total 284 100.0 100.0
Valid percent: omits any people that didn’t answer. If there aren’t any missing, then the percent
and valid percent would be the same. The cumulative percent is used for ordinal category (table
of grades).
Notice:
The frequency distribution table:
• Shows the count, or frequency, in each category of your category variable
• IE, how many students from each department in the sample of 284
• The title is the variable label
• It gives totals at the bottom
• It shows the percent of the total
• It shows the valid percent
• This percentage omits any missing data
• Not important at this point
• And this variable has no missing answers
• It shows the cumulative percent
• Only useful for ordinal category variables
• See Linneman text, p. 40
What this frequency table tells you: Readings: Linneman: 39-43
Note: Kranzler ch. 4 has same title
• But it’s about ratio variables
• Ignore it for now
2. CROSSTABULATIONS of TWO VARIABLES
• New doc posted on website: “SPSS Crosstabs”
RQ: Do students with high grades like being at UofT more than other students?
• IE: do high marks affect your opinion of UofT
In SPSS:
“Analyze” dropdown menu
“Descriptive statistics”
“Crosstabs”
This opens a box called “Crosstabs”
• On the left: List of variables
• Below: two check boxes: IGNORE
• In the middle: three empty working areas called “Rows”, “Columns”, and “Layer”
• IGNORE the “layer” area for now
• Option buttons on the right
• You’ll use “Cells”, IGNORE OTHERS
• Action buttons on the bottom
• OK to make the table
• RESET to start over again
Decide on your DV
• For our RQ: it’s “Like being at UofT”
• Survey item is: “I am glad I chose UofT – agree, unsure, disagree”
• Variable label is “Glad I chose UofT”
• Move it to the “Rows” area
Move your IV to the “Columns” area
• Students with high grades
• Survey item is “My average last year”
• This has been recoded into two categories – “B+ or better” and “other”
• Variable label is “B+ or better” • Move it to the “Columns” area
Click on OK
This brings up your crosstab table
Glad I chose UofT * B+ or better Crosstabulation
Count
B+ or better
Lower than B+ B+ or better Total
Glad I chose UofT Disagree 36 28 64
Unsure 41 32 73
Agree 56 76 132
Total 133 136 269
Is there a relationship?
• Hard to tell
• No numbers that tell us if there’s a relationship
Percentaging Tables
• The rules:
1. Dependent Variable categories go in rows
2. Independent Variable categories go in columns
3. Percentage down -- within columns (within IV categories)
4. Compare across – within rows (within DV categories)
Readings: See Linneman pp. 46-47
In SPSS:
In the Crosstabs box
• After you’ve moved your DV into “Rows” area, and IV into “Columns”…
• Click “Cells” button on right
• This opens a sub-box called “Crosstabs: Cell Display”
• This lets you choose what goes into each cell of your table
• Counts of #s of cases automatically go in • You want to add percentages
• Sub-box has with five separate areas
• IGNORE ALL except “Percentages”
• The “Percentages” area gives you three choices
1. Row
2. Column
3. Total
• We want to percentage down
• IE percentages within each column
• So we select “Column”
• This gives us percentages within each category of the IV (marks)
• We can then compare across
• Within each category of the DV (feelings about UofT)
• Read Linneman, pp. 46-47
• Click “Continue” to close the Cells sub-box
• Click OK
• This brings up the same crosstab table
• Except this time with percentages
Glad I chose UofT * B+ or better Crosstabulation
B+ or better
Lower than B+ B+ or better Total
Glad I chose UofT Disagree Count 36 28 64
% within B+ or better 27.1% 20.6% 23.8%
Unsure Count 41 32 73
% within B+ or better 30.8% 23.5% 27.1%
Agree Count 56 76 132
% within B+ or better 42.1% 55.9% 49.1%
Total Count 133 136 269
% within B+ or better 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
14% isn’t large enough of the difference to be considered; theref

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