SOC227H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Absenteeism, Job Satisfaction, Welfare Capitalism

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Published on 26 Nov 2017
School
UTM
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC227H5
Professor
1
SOC 227WORK AND OCCUPATIONS
Session #1: Culture, Models, History
Readings:
Text: Introduction; Ch. 1: 1-10
“A World without Work”
“Automation and Job Loss in Canada
JK MEDIA ITEM
fears of whether machines are going to replace people
automobile factories are already replacing people with machines don’t need the lights on in
the factory because the machines can work without light
people try to stop technology progress
things we thought machines couldn’t do, we have to re-think because technology has come
such a long way
article says that you don’t have to worry too much
INTRO to the COURSE
SOCIAL CULTURE
Social entity: a grouping of individuals with some awareness that they are members of the
group. You can belong to a country, religion, etc.
Social structure: the relationships among the individual parts of the entity. Friendship or status
structures.
Social culture: elements that are responsible for the individual’s social entity
1. Beliefs: broad ideas about the social entity and how the world works. Beliefs of
what is and how it got that way.
2. Values: ideas about what’s important, assess the beliefs, ideas about what is right
and wrong and how things should be. (i.e. different families have different values for
what is important)
3. Norms: commonly accepted and expected behaviours in the social entity
4. Symbols: objects and behaviours that illustrate the beliefs & values
CAUSAL MODELS: diagrams that show cause and effect relationships
1. Simple:
M-F Power Difference
Gender Harassment
Proportion of M Empl.
Interpretation: male-female power differences
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2
2. Indirect Effect:
Job
Satisfaction
Pay Not
Quitting
Interpretation: effect that goes through another effect. Indirect effect through job
satisfaction relating to whether employees quit. Notion of why the process connects pay
and not quitting
mediating effect comes in between the two variables pay and not quitting job
satisfaction is the mediating effect
3. Interaction Effect:
EG #1: Sex, dominance behaviours, and room size
Room
Size
Sex Dominance
Behaviours
Interpretation: two different ways of showing interaction effect, this relationship depends on the
size of the room small room: male dominance behaviours are enhanced, if it’s a large room:
subdued male dominance behaviours therefore room size is a moderating effect
EG #2: Absenteeism is affected by the interaction of sex and marital status
Marital
Status
Days
Absent
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3
Sex
AVERAGE DAYS OFF PER YEAR
Employee Sex
Male
Female
Marital Status
4
3
3
12
Interpretation: no moderating effects here, the effects are just interacting. 4 possible
combinations, but only one combination gives high absenteeism (married females tend to
have childhood responsibilities)
WHERE WE ARE
Getting a good professional job is even more difficult now than when our parents were
looking for a job
If you had any college or university education you could easily get a high-paying job
Today’s Issue
What happened?
What’s going on?
Today’s Objectives: Know
Two major components of social culture
Two dimensions of social structure
Three types of causal models
Four factors affecting the development of work
Five stages in development of industrialization
Two basic aspects of capitalism
Terms to Know
social entityis the separate existence of an organization that is perceived to exist, by its members
and the public at large, as a given, i.e. something that exists before and outside of them
social structurethe distinctive, stable arrangement of institutions whereby human beings in a
society interact and live together. Social structure is often treated together with the concept
of social change, which deals with the forces that change the social structure and the organization of
society.
social cultureA complex set of meanings, habits, values and behaviours adopted by one or
more social formations.
beliefs are the tenets or convictions that people hold to be true. Individuals in a society have
specific beliefs, but they also share collective values
valuesimportant and lasting beliefs or ideals shared by the members of a culture about what is
good or bad and desirable or undesirable. Values have major influence on a person's behavior and
attitude and serve as broad guidelines in all situations
interaction effects interaction effect occurs when the effect of one variable on another varies by
levels of a third variable.
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Document Summary

Automation and job loss in canada fears of whether machines are going to replace people: automobile factories are already replacing people with machines don"t need the lights on in. Social culture: social entity: a grouping of individuals with some awareness that they are members of the group. You can belong to a country, religion, etc: social structure: the relationships among the individual parts of the entity. Friendship or status structures: social culture: elements that are responsible for the individual"s social entity, beliefs: broad ideas about the social entity and how the world works. Causal models: diagrams that show cause and effect relationships: simple: Indirect effect through job satisfaction relating to whether employees quit. Notion of why the process connects pay and not quitting: mediating effect comes in between the two variables pay and not quitting job satisfaction is the mediating effect, interaction effect: Eg #1: sex, dominance behaviours, and room size.

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