Lecture 3: Industrial Theories of Management Part 1 – Weber and Taylor
Dealt with relationship with bureaucracy.
Bureaucracy: power, rules related to people, ranks-how you move through ranks, efficient
He was the first person who talked and analyzed about bureaucracy.
Argued: modern democratic societies need bureaucracy. He said there are good and bad
sides of bureaucracy.
Can a modern, rational organization be democratic?
UTM is a democratic organization – there is a system of representation. “Not democratic”
in terms of relationships with people at UTM.
The larger the group of people, the more inflexible bureaucracy becomes.
Formal hierarchies aren’t non-democratic.
Relationship between democracy and bureaucracy.
Theory of power: person who gets on his/her own will.
3 types of legitimate authorities:
1. Rational: Belief in legality of rules and the right of those in a position issue
commands. It operates within bureaucracy. Example: TTC YouTube video on
May14th – driver did not let the women get off the bus at a non-stop. “Driver”
following rules and regulations…driver = bureaucratic.
2. Traditional: Rests on established beliefs of the sanctified tradition and legitimacy
of existing authority. It is based on personal relationships. Example: patriarchy –
male power in the family; parents; religion – follow religious texts and values. As
society gets modernized, traditional authority is decreasing.
3. Charismatic: Devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism, or exemplary
character of an individual person. The individual gives legitimacy to whatever the
cause is. Example: Hitler, Obama and other leaders; social changes.
Definition of Bureaucracy
A complex organization governed by rules, policies and procedures.
Jobs are defined by strict division of labour.
Rationality, efficiency, calculability and instrumental rationality.
Bureaucracy - supposed to be rational, efficient in order to organize the workplace.
Calculability: costs, benefits are calculated – done by an accountant.
Instrumental rationality: we start to treat people as means to an end. Example:
relationship between teacher and students; note-taking.; going to UTM.
Weber said everyone becomes an instrument in a bureaucracy. Example: serving people
at restaurants (be nice to them for tip etc.)
People become specialists.
Strict hierarchy in decision making.
Clear career path
Impersonal organization How does this relate to Karl Marx’s theory of Alienation?
Alienation of process of production
Alienation from product
Alienation from others