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Lecture 9

SOC231H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Collective Effervescence, Flag Of Canada, Totem

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Zaheer Baber

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SOC231 Lecture 9 - Division of Labor
Dubois and Durkheim
The division of labor in society
Problem of order; how is order, stability possible?
Organic analogy: society like biological organisms; parts/whole
Individuals and society
Society is a huge organism and individuals all come together to contribute to
the society aka the maintenance of the whole
This society is disrupted by conservative thinkers - everything that is taken for
granted will fall apart so it’s best to go back to way things were before
industrial revolution
What “social glue” brings individuals to society?
Binding mechanism = mechanical solidarity
Simple societies: “Mechanical Solidarity”
Functions are not so differentiated - there is a kind of feeling of togetherness
Most individuals are similar to each other and differences are frowned upon
People share values and are more or less like each other - mechanical in
sense where they are similar to each other
People alike; share a common “Conscience collective”
Individual conscience magnified to cover entire community
Results in Population Growth, differentiation: “organic solidarity” = emergence of the
division of labour, interdependence
Laboring = doing different things - causes the ties of independence to form -
basis of social stability
Called the organic solidarity - labor binds people
Stronger basis for ongoing society being stable
Continuing conflicts in Durkheim's time; concern with issues of social justice, equity
Anomic division of labour (anomie)
Anomie → chaos because of different perceptions and values -
situation of confusion
Forced division of labour (unjust contract)
Abolition of inheritance of private property (compare with marx)
Need degree of capitalism to generate wealth
Revival of occupational guilds - inherit private property as public property
Period when established norms are absent or not yet understood.internalized
Rapid social change, revolution, being in a new cultural context, etc.
‘Powerlessness’ - not sure how to act
Alienation(Marx) - rationalization(weber) - double consciousness(Dubois) -
Very similar but not the same
Alienation; Not much control over circumstances
Rationalization; Too much rules and regulations - too dominant
Double consciousness; end of slavery but racism persists
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