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Lecture 2- September 16.docx
Lecture 2- September 16.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Zaheer Baber

Lecture 2- September 16, 2013 Immanuel Kant  What is enlightenment? – focused on use of reason to evaluate and decide whether institutions enhance human’s ability o Infantilize- telling people what to do  Reason: not tradition and arbitrary power  Humans become “adults”; i.e. responsible for their actions and institutions o Subjects to citizens  Rousseau: the social contract vs. arbitrary power (unrestrained power) o Social contract- free individuals come together and sign a contract; contractually bound and it is negotiable depending on reason  General will vs. individual will (political power structures) o Opposed to each other or complement each other o Impossible that all individuals can have input in structure of political government o Need to have representatives to represent large population o General will- can exclude certain people o Humans become reasoned enough to participate in construction of society Marx  “child of the enlightenment”  Rousseau: perfectibility of humans but constrained by social institutions o Unnececssary hierarchy, slavery, power struggle  “man is born free but is everywhere in chains” 1. The dialectical method/perspective- good and bad at the same time  Non-dialectical: everything either positive or negative o Two opposite dichotomies  Positivists vs. the romantic- conservatives on the French revolution Dialectical Method rejects the either/or dichotomy  Everything is in a constant state of movement, becoming, ceaseless contradictions, practice o We are always trying to become what we think we can be  Hard to pin down either/ or at any particular moment  “the permanence of change”  “you cannot step into the same river twice”  “unit of opposites”  Relationship of “parts” to “wholes” o Whole does not exist without the parts  The concept of zero o Individual- society (“agency and structure”)  Simultaneously an individual but a social individual  Relation of concepts  We are determined by our social relationships o “free will”- “determinism” Hegel  Idealism- the dialectic at the level of ideas o Idealism- changing what you think about mentally into reality o Ideas are paramount  Thesis- anti-thesis –synthesis- thesis- antithesis  Marx’s c
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