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Lecture

Jan 11.doc


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC231H5
Professor
Zaheer Baber

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SOC231
January 10th
Last Weeks Recap
Hobbes and Rousseau on human nature, individual and society
Hobbes argues to be really an individual, you really need rules in place and
those rules need to be administrated by a strong ruling power and from
reverting to their natural state (which is one of fighting and war), there
needs to be a fear of the ruling power
Rousseau states that it is a society that leads to war and fighting and stops
people from being in their natural state (which is one of peace)
The Enlightenment: humans rational, perfectible
Human beings are essentially rational
They can become more and more perfect
These thinkers critiqued religion they felt the role of clerical institutions had
overstepped its authority and all rules and norms were dominated by these
institutions
“Is/Ought” dichotomy comes via negative, critical thinking, use of reason
“What is” and “What ought to be”, is and ought are always connected,
before the Enlightenment, there wasn’t a whole lot of focus on this aspect
Positivism
Attempting to apply natural science model
Positive about the post-French revolutionary society
Natural laws for a conflict free society
Elitist project in the sense that they thought sociologist really knew what was
best of everybody – problematic because you cannot treat humans in a
scientific way like you can atoms and molecules also sociologists cannot
know what is best for everyone
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
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