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Lecture

Pre-Industrial Families


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC244H5
Professor
Lina Samuel

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Pre-Industrial Families
September 20, 2011
Early Christianity
Between the 4th and 10th century Christianity extended beyond the Roman Empire
This religion started within Judaism
Highest form of moralty was virginity (sex was sin)
7th degre of cousins prohibited (you couldn’t marry anyone that is related to you)
1563 Council of Trent
-Future marriages must be celebrated in the presence of a priest and 2-3 witnesses
-No divorce (annulment for the wealthy groups--peasants and poor families left their
marriages through abandonment)
Reformation
Protestant Church split form the Catholic Church
Martin Luther (1438-1546)
Endorsed civil marriages (civil contracts could end)
Focus on: civil morality and individual responsibility
Family Life in Medieval England (Tracy Adams 2001)
Nature of production shaped family relations
Feudalism:
-Kinds
-Nobles
-Serfs
-Freeman
-Artisans and Craftsman
stratified structure--manny inequalities emerged through the structure of the family
children from the serfs were expected to work
17 to 18 % of Europes population were farmers, making it difficult for people to leave their
land, they were deeply connected
lack of formal education except for children of the wealthy and elite
not much traveling--absence of reading and writing--lack of connectivity thus making t
difficult t marry outside of your 7th degree cousin
FEUDALISM CONTINUED...
-Rigid and stratified society
-Farmers-indentured laborers
->illiterate and uneducated (formal)
->family business all of the people in the household were involved in production
-Villages were closely knit with local culture
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Towns you had:
-salaried laborers, free artisans, professionals
-ruling elite
-nobles
Importance of the Family Unit
FAMILY (HOUSEHOLD) WAS THE UNIT OF PRODUCTION AS WELL AS THE
UNIT OF CONSUMPTION
Families worked collectively
Children worked from the age of 7
Marriages were economic arrangements (dowries were given: lands) most people would be
married in their twenties because both the husband and the wife had to contribute
NATURE OF CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION SHAPED FAMILY STRUCTURE
Pre-Industrial France and England
Greater specialization in the urban area
Separation of production from consumption
Wage work and the importance of the market
-goals of work is to meet the needs of the household
-urban households met their needs through the market (no baking, purchasing from market)
-changes took place gradually
“Household labour needs subsistence requirements and family relationships consituted the
family economy”
Household and the economy were one
Michele Barette (1988)
Women’s Oppression Today: The Marxist/Feminist EncounterRevised Edition
Feudal households more egalitarian
Familial ideology was absent or less oppressive
Contribution of all members highly valued
Men, women, children, the elderly contribute more evenly than in more capitalist systems of
production
Pre-Industrial Monteral (Bettina Bradbury, 2001)
Family Wage and the dependence by women on their husbands for survival
Dependence on working class families on youth wages
Gender roles for women were flexible
Household moves from a unit of consumption and production to one that is merely a unit of
consumption
-working class household was basically a poor household
Decisions to send children out to work in Montreal based on:
age
sex
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