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Lecture

chapter 12 reading & lecture note

11 pages105 viewsWinter 2011

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC244H5
Professor
Lingqin Feng

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SOC244: TEST 2CHAPTER 12: The Parent-Child Relationship and Child
Socialization
-parent child relationship is studied within a combined interactional-transactional and life course
perspective
-for example, a small child who is blessed with positive characteristics finds it easier to comply
to parents’ socialization requests as they internalize family rules and norms more easily
-children and parents interact and influence each others behaviours and attitudes
1.Children contribute to the way their parents see and treat them
2.Interactions between parents and children become part of the child’s environment
3.Interactions are in turn affected and shaped by sociocultural variables
Parents Socialization Practices
-professional standards applied to how parents should interact with children
-current trends in place to standardize and rationalize lives in a postmodern economy, with
emphasis on individualism and development in children
-parenting practices and parent-child interactions are social constructs
-North American societies stress “democratic rather than authoritarian relations, including
autonomy, psychological well-being, and emotional expressiveness as the ideal
-social construct of proper family relations makes it difficult for immigrant children to value their
own family’s style of interaction
-literature on parents’ socialization ignores the roles of genes, the dynamics of the interactional
perspective, as well as the social construction of motherhood/fatherhood and childhood
Authoritative Parenting
combines warmth, respect for childrens individuality, and psychological autonomy with
monitoring of their activities and whereabouts; firm, yet loving and involved
such parents explain to their kids the reasons behind their demands and the consequences
of not complying
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they insist on obedience and then follow through with enforcement of rules and
appropriate punishment
punishment may increase the ability to internalize rules of behaviour so that, when older,
children will no longer need to be punished
authoritative pattern correlates the most with good adjustment on all dimensions of
development, but its various components contribute in unique and independent ways to
diverse child outcomes
within an interactional perspective, authoritative parenting cannot prevent all problems
the following are variables that constitute authoritative parenting: parental knowledge,
monitoring, control, and warmth
Authoritarian Parenting
what predominates in the authoritarian parenting style is the dimension of control,
restriction, and, at the extreme, coercion
this discipline is not so effective (in North America) because it isnt socially constructed
as suitable within the broad cultural context
some authoritarian parents are characterized by inconsistency; they tell their children
what to do, punish them harshly, threaten them, or punish severely one time but not the
next
this type of discipline is not as effective due to inconsistencies; development of self-
control isnt stimulated and children as persons arent respected
No-Nonsense” Parenting
often seen in African Canadian and American as well as in Caribbean samples
higher on control than in the authoritative pattern but also involving more warmth and
nurturance than is the case in the authoritarian style
control under this type of parenting includes physical punishment that occurs within an
otherwise affectionate context
signals to the child that the parents is vigilant and cares
promotes black childrens sense of competence and regulation
Permissive and Uninvolved Parenting
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permissive parents place very few maturity demands on their children
they do not actively socialize with their children nor do they supervise their children
permissiveness can be combined with either a high level of warmth and acceptance or
with disinterest and rejection
uninvolved parents are either permissive and indifferent or permissive and rejecting
dont pay much attention, dont fulfill socialization function, low parental control;
combination consistently related to a host of negative outcomes (example, delinquency
and drug use)
parental permissiveness has more negative consequences than authoritarianismin times
where there is cultural and social instability
Additional Parenting Styles
one other parenting style which overlaps with the permissive style and is called wavering-
negotiating pattern
parents do not guide their children, even their toddlers, or make demands of them
they consult with their children about every step and make changes as soon as the child
disagrees
this is not a parental style that the lower class could afford because it would be too
disruptive to their lives
Determinants of Parents’ Socialization Practices
-Three influences on parents when they are choosing what type of parenting pattern to adopt:
contextual and cultural influences, parents’ personalities and beliefs, and parents’ adaptation to
their childrens personalities and behaviours
Contextual and Cultural Determinants
childrearing practices can become ineffective or harsh because of environmentally
induced stressors; for example, poverty, unemployment, divorce, etc.
harsher disciplinary practices are explained by insufficient resources and because parents
may also experience an erosion of their authority
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