SOC244H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Stephanie Coontz, Social Exchange Theory, System On A Chip
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Lecture 5 - soc 244
Mating, Marriage and the Gendered Division of Labour
slide 2 - Exchange theory – assumes that individual minimize the costs of being in a
The rewards: you feel loved, afffected, intimate, someone attrative wealthy, but there are
also costs invovled: the thigns you have to put into someones relatinship: for exmaple
mellys annoying little weird sayings.
-We scream at people that are dramatically different from us – patterns of
monogamy- couple who share very similar factors, eg education, culture etc. and
dotochomy – marrying someone else tha tis dutch like yourself.
-slide 3 - Found that females who found males that are less attractive with better
--they did a cross cultural study looking at japanse and russian studnets – found
that men rated physical attrativeness more then women. Women placed more
imporatce on: money, social status, intelligence etc.
-- men placed high value on physical attractivesness.
-slide 4 - If owmen consistently marired up – in terms of education – theres two
groups of popele that are left out – the highly educated women – and poorl
educated lower income men.
-Higher educated women have aharder time finding partners. – higher rates of
divroce and dissatisfaction
-Women with high level of eduactiona nd income have experienced lower
marriage rates. – if they get apired up with men with lower educational
-slide 5 - Psychomadynomic – influence of childhood and the choices that you
make when you are in your twenties for example, looks at childhood and family.
-- men will tend to choose a partner that shares a resemblance to his mother- and
women tend to choose a partner that has characteristics thatr esembe her father-
-More contemporary studies- 1984- tested this theory and found that combinality
on traits occurred very often.
-Needs theory- a nurtured person is one that likes to be cared for others- younger
sibling tends to be more suckered – someone that needs to be taken care off while
the older sibling is more independent – complementary needs theory – idea that
we are looking for needs.
-- builds on people seek relationships that provides maximum satisfaction &
penalized very minimally for their own needs. – states women will look for men
whos stronger – who will fulfill her needs.
slide 6 - Exchange- the indiviaul is going to get as much out of it- as much as they put
If a relationsgip progresses equalily – then onepartner is constatntly moving – and
thereyby expoliting the other and the relationship cannot continue- you cant contantly
take and take and not putting it in – you need equality on int.
eQuity theory- fairness is the key to the successful relationship theory.
Development process theory – these theories look at mate selection as aprocess of
filtering out- going through all these people to go to find that one person.
-They go to various stages: Propinquit- geogrpahy is an important factor- you meet
pepople in your work place, school,
-Attraction: people are drawn to people – man place a great deal on phsycail
attractivesnes then women place
-Homogramy- choose ppl with similar chracterisitics.
-Compatiblity – idea with being able to live with somebody in some state of the
-There are also situational factors: pregnacy – for exmaple you suddnely find out
your preogant – unexpected – so you suddnely in a marriag – very complex
-slide 7- She writes that the rpocess of marriage varies depending what country
your talking about and what historical moment you are talking about.
-- germany and japan- had a sharp contract – becuae they were focusd on
increasing the birht rate and in other countries they were trying to decrease the
birth rate process.
-- the focus was on abstience in the US, while in Japan- there werent as much
individuals having children.
-THE United Nations- girls can be wed at very young ages- 13, 14, singapore on
the other hand- convinced ppl to marry at a young age, in spain more then 50% of
the women aged 25 – 29 – are single. This is problematic for the nations birth rate
and for future ppl.
- between the age of 30 -35 – choosing to live with their parents rather then start
their own families.
-- china- strict one child policy – shapr rise in the birth rate of boys. – the abortion
of female babies.
-- everywher she writes – becoming more vulnerable
-The relationships of true men and women have changed more in the 30 years then
they have in the previos 3,000 years.
-So have the roles of men,women and children in those families.
-This is what Stephanie Coontz writes.
-- both men and women shared the taks of childbearing – the houshold was both a
unit pf roduction and consumption in 1960’s ther were beginning to be changes.
-In the 18th century – this move towards marriage. – ppl choosing love, marriage
during this age.