SOC263 – Lecture – November 13, 2012
Social Inequality & Education
Education Attainment: “A measure of the highest degree (of education) a person has (i.e. bachelors,
high school diploma, College Certificate etc.)”
Educational Return: The monetary and occupational labour market rewards that one receives on the
basis of their level of educational attainment.
Despite having an educational attainment there may not be an educational return because of
Income Inequalities (based on gender, since there is a wage discrimination and men get paid
more than women)
Education Attainment and Educational Return
Never Qualified: Canadian born citizens often attained the never qualified jobs than recent immigrants)
creates an inclusion/exclusion factor.
Ever Overqualified: Involves credentials not being recognized for immigrants and having to settle for
low paying- low education based jobs
Ever Overqualified creates downward mobility because credentials of immigrants are devalued (i.e. from
Global South) though a system of radicalization. There is institutional/structural racism (i.e. professional
racism, where there is racial profiling by employers) that leads to structural barriers and de-evaluation
QUESTION: Why is there a point system that regulates who gets in terms of education yet there is major
overqualification that occurs in jobs where many immigrants are overqualified?
ANSWER: There is a disconnect between the government and employers
IMMIGRANTS DO NOT HAVE THE SOCIAL CAPITAL TO GET THEM THE JOBS THEY ARE QUALIFIED FOR
There is a system that divides jobs (i.e. migrant workers programs /temporary jobs – where they
come to Canada and get sent back after a period of time to their country i.e. Nannies/farmers)
Immigrants with high education often get pushed down to do the dirty jobs.
There is a hype of University education since j