SOC263H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Gini Coefficient, Maximal Function, Distributive Justice

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25 Jul 2016
School
Department
Course
Soc 263
Lecture 2
Theories of Inequality
Definition
-Brock, Raby and Thomas: systemic and attitudinal inequality- is not deliberately
reproduced through structural relations, not the goal of the social structure- a
firefighter needing a bigger body discriminated against those who are smaller,
attitudinal inequality-based on people’s attitudes, stereotypes; preconceived
notions, group and prejudice; individual notion- into actions; discrimination
-Utilitarian approach
-Inequality in functional (Davis and Moore: activation of human capital for
functionally significant occupations); some occupations which are highly important
for society, in order to recruit best individuals we have to give them high rewards
when they finish, what is the sacrifice?
-Inequality is dysfunctional (Aristotle: cause of instability and low social
integration)’ people trying to keep the inequality to keep the power they have, social
integration-assimilate into groups in society
-Meritocracy: Inequality is based on individual merit and usually functional, made
the effort to gain abilities and applied them for the good of society
-Social justice approach: individuals should both fulfill their societal roles and
receive their due from society, inequality has an ethical component, what is the due
that members of society should receive, liberals—fair chance to develop their
abilities and go up the hierarchy of inequality, based on assumption that people
should fulfill their societal role
-Distributive justice, society should not interfere in distribution of power/prestige
just economic resources, once level the playing the fired in regards to economic
resources people will undergo social mobility
-Social exclusion (marginalization): the process in which individuals or groups are
systematically blocked from (or denied full access to) rights, opportunities and
resources that are normally available to members of a different group, and are
fundamental to integration within that particular society
-Brock, Raby and Thomas: center-normative social order, in Canadian society-
multicultural, democratic, capitalist, consumerism
-Knezevic: exclusion is different to operationalize, defined in a way in which it can
be used in research-binary or complex, value influenced
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