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Lecture 8

SOC275H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Jennifer Lawrence, Glass Ceiling, Emotional Labor

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Hae Yeon Choo

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Lecture 8
The gendered world of work
Main topics of the day
1. Shifting notions of gendered and work from historical perspectives
2. Gendered segregation; gendered discrimination; persisting masculine norm in the
3. Gender, race and reproductive labor (Glenn)
The modern divide between the public and private sphere in the 19th century
- Paid work is something that exists outside because of industrialization
- Domesticity is feminine a modern idea (19th century)
The changing gender composition of the labor force
- The percentage of women working: 16.2% in 1911 to more than 62% in 2008 (between
25-54, more than 80% in 2003)
- Shift from the male breadwinner model to the dual-earner couple
- Persistence of “the second shift” (the responsibilities of childcare and housework born
disproportionately by women, in addition to their paid work)
- The second shift
o Dual income couple heterosexual, married, when women and men go out to work
they go out to work, but when they come home, it’s often the women who take the
disproportionate amount of housework
o The second shift after the first shift of being at work
The rise of precarious work and the feminization of labor
- From standard employment relationship (family wage, benefits, long-term contract) to
precarious work
o If one person works they will be able to support everyone else (standard
- The rise of the precarious work since the 1970s: currently one third of Canadian jobs are
precarious, and 40% of women (and 29% of men) fit this category
- Precarious work is actually not family friendly
- In high scale jobs we see more and more people being employed by temp agency type
formats your employer being someone else rather than the person you are working at
o This causes you to not have the same type of benefits as the people you work
along side (who actually work for the person you are working at)
o These temp agencies made this argument that women like this flexibility, so this
idea started to gain traction, unions didn’t oppose
This small section though would be mainstreamed, and now this type of
employment is done everywhere
This is not family friendly though because if you don’t know where or
when your shift will be its hard to plan where to put your children
Persisting gender ideologies of male breadwinner/female housewife model
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