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SOC307-Lecture 4

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Reza Barmaki

PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) -psychoanalysis: analysis of the mind, psyche -basic assumption: there is something in human beings that makes them do what they do: there is more than what they see such as biological chromosomes -most important factors influencing ones personality & life are deep in the unconscious -there is emphasis on the UNCONSCIOUS part- there is something to you that you’re not even aware of that affects your behavior Freud’s Practice Began by -treatment for hysteria -a form of neurosis: today we call it mental disorders -mental disorders involving distress -definitive symptom: anxieties -depression, chronic anxiety, obsessive-compulsive tendencies, phobias, personality disorders -the more they looked, the less they could find; couldn’t find the gene that causes these mental disorders Hysteria -unmanageable fear or emotional excesses -often associated by the patient a body part -pain, disease, having problem with it -loss of self-control due to the overwhelming fear Jean-Martin Charcot (also studying the same problem as Freud) -patients were suffering from a variety of unexplained physical symptoms -paralysis, seizures, contractures (muscles which contract & can’t be relaxed) -Concluded; patients were suffering from a form of hysteria -encountered the same problems as Freud Picture- hysterical seizure -was caused by an emotional response to a traumatic accident in their past -fall from a scaffold, a railway crash etc… -diagnosis: patients suffered not from the physical effects of the accident but from the idea they had formed of it; it was a PAINFUL MEMORY Freud borrowed from Charcot -main forms of neurosis came about when: a traumatic experience led to process of unconscious symptom-formation Josef Breuer 1842-1925: Austrian physician -Anna- 21 years old (Bertha Pappenheim) -had fallen ill while nursing her father: had a # of physical symptoms: paralysis/hallucinations -Breuer’s diagnosis: case of hysteria -talking cure: recreate memory of incident which originally led to illness: bring about emotional release inducing patient to express any feeling associated with it Birth of Psychoanalysis -Freud connected: Breuer’s talking cure WITH Charcot’s view on traumatic experiences st 1 theory: SEDUCTION THEORY -patients remembered incidents of childhood sexual abuse *you build theories by putting several cases together -repressed those memories -explained some but not all cases of hysteria 2ND THEORY -Freud learned: majority complained of sexual problems -he argued: problem: cultural restrictions on sexual expressions -repression of sexual wishes & fantasies -cultural taboos on sexuality: unexpressed sexual desires -expressed as hysteria -e.g. in the picture shown- the woman is covered from neck all the way down Freud realized… -patient memories were constructed exaggerations… -a deeper reality was hidden behind these (although patients didn’t mean to exaggerate it) -it expressed itself but didn’t want to be known (disguising itself) -Freud tried to find its structure Structure of Psyche (mind) -Superego- in between the 2- connects conscience & the ego-ideal -Personality: formation & interaction of these 3 elements Id -unconscious, location of instincts -desires, aggressive impulses, needs (food, sex) -control thoughts & feelings of individuals -present @ birth (inherited) -ruled by pleasure/pain principle -maximize pleasure, minimize pain -completely IRRATIONAL, primarily sexual/infantile, wants immediate gratification -wish fulfillment -amoral and selfish -note: moral= follows sense of right/wrong, good/bad -immoral= ignores good/bad: you choose to ignore what’s good/bad -amoral: morality doesn’t apply: moment of innocence -examples of amoral: child, monkey, dog: they DON’T KNOW difference between right/wrong A repository for repressed memories, wishes, emotions… -person is averse (hostile) to knowing (painful) -socially unacceptable -express themselves- hysteria, neurosis Ego -a part if Id -reality principle -modified by influence of external world -realistic part of psyche -reason, rationality, common sense -needed to control the id -Freud wrote of ego: “in its relation to the id it is like a man on horseback, who has to hold in check the superior strength of the horse” -mediates id, superego, external world -balance between passions, rules, conscience -main concern: safe satisfaction of id’s desires, consequences of actions especially punishment, operates based on reality principle, demands of external world & avoids punishment -loyal to id: ignores/justifies id’s immoral demands -pretends to have a regard for reality Superego- this is the CONSCIENCE -mainly unconscious -right/wrong, good/bad -result of socialization: internalized social rules & expectations -watches ego’s moves -punishes it with feelings of anxiety & guilt -criticizes and prohibit immoral fantasises, feelings & actions SOCIALIZATION IN PSYCHOANALYSIS -resolution of Oedipal conflict (for boys) -a part of psychosexual development: development of libido (sexual energy) -several stages -inhibiting libido during any stage would result in anxiety & persist into adulthood as neurosis 5 developmental stages- source of pleasure is in a different erogenous one of the infant’s body 1. oral -mouth sources of gratification -oral exploration of environment -pleasure: feeding @ mother’s breasts -tendency to place objects in mount -mouth is source of gaining nourishment and pleasure -id dominates/ no ego + superego -action based on pleasure principle -weaning: first feeling of loss & pain -increases infant`s self-awareness: a) lack of control over environment b) learns delayed gratification -leads to: -independence (awareness of the limits of the
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