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lecture 5

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Reza Barmaki

SOC307-Lecture 5 Victim & Victimization Who? What? Why? 1) Who is likely to be the victim? -factors: age, gender, ethnicity, social status, location… 2) What type of crime? -different groups are victims of different crimes -violent, sexual harassment, economic, political… 3) Why? -theory -coherent relation between who/what Victim precipitation theory  Individuals may cause their own victimization A) Active Precipitation -victim as the initiator -initiates confrontation -end up the victim ex: injured, dead -why? -many reasons: anger, drunkenness, accidents, miscalculations… B) Passive Precipitation -victim unknowingly causes his/her own victimization -shows characteristics and/or behaviour disliked by the offender -perceived by offender as threat or danger -effects the offender emotionally -ethnicity, unconventionality, sexuality, socioeconomic reasons, envy, hatred… Passive precipitation was used as a legal defence in rape cases  Rapist claimed: he was provoked  Female provoked him: provocative dress, behaviour  “she asked for it”  patriarchal attitudes  “no means no” was introduced against this defence Routine Activities Theory  Availability for suitable targets  Absence of capable guardians  Presence of motivated offenders Suitable Human Targets  Increases Victimization chances  Weakness:  Physical  Mental  Social  Examples: elderly, children, poor, powerless…. Lifestyle Theories  Intentional High-risk lifestyle  Increases probability of being a victim  Dangerous: places, people, activities  Examples: neighbourhoods, bars, nightclubs, gangs, drugs Proximity Hypothesis  Unintentional exposure to danger  Victimization  Living close to a high-risk neighbourhood Equivalent Group Hypothesis  Deviance & victimization  Highly related  Criminals ate likely to become victims themselves  Example: gang members Highest Risk Category  Poor, young, black males Behavioural Psychology  B.F. Skinner  1904-1990  American Premises  Animal behavior can be studied for understanding human behaviour  Environment conditions behavior Behaviourism’s Question  How do you control behavior of an organism?  Animals or human beings  How do you get the conduct (response) that you want?  Operant conditioning  Answer:  Control consequences of an action  Use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior  Four kinds of consequences 1) Positive punishment  behaviour is followed by an unpleasant stimulus  electric shock or loud noise experiment  result:  Decrease in that behaviour  Example in human behavior: stealing  cut hands 2) Negative punishment  Behaviour is followed by the removal of a favorable stimulus  Examples: taking away a child’s toy  Giving people the silent treatment  Loss of freedom (Jail)  These two forms of punishments result in: decrease in an unwanted behaviour 3) Positive Reinforcement  Behaviour is followed by a favourable stimulus  Commonly seen as pleasant 
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