Individuals may cause their own victimization: active precipitation. Shows characteristics and/or behaviour disliked by the offender. Passive precipitation was used as a legal defence in rape cases. No means no was introduced against this defence. Criminals ate likely to become victims themselves. Animal behavior can be studied for understanding human behaviour. Use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. Four kinds of consequences: positive punishment. Behaviour is followed by an unpleasant stimulus. Example in human behavior: stealing cut hands. Behaviour is followed by the removal of a favorable stimulus. These two forms of punishments result in: decrease in an unwanted behaviour: positive reinforcement. Behaviour is followed by a favourable stimulus. Increases frequency of that behaviour: negative reinforcement. Behaviour is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus. Forms aggressions: outward, real source, imagined source (displaced aggression) Fast trials; long prison sentences; over crowding of prisons. Common beliefs about a group of people.