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Lecture 7

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Reza Barmaki

Wednesday, August 1, 2012 Social Disorganization Theory (Chicago School) Ecological Explanation  Study of organisms relations with their environment and each other  Reflects degree scarcity of resources (food, mate…)  Unintentional system (not engineered) Key concept: Natural Habitat  A natural system  Equilibrium: parts have adjusted  Often: a system of predator-prey  Keeps numbers of each specie in check Result of introduction of new specie?  Equilibrium is disturbed  What to do with the new specie  No “Natural” enemy  Either adjust, or system is destroyed These ideas were applied to cities (Human Ecology)  Cities: natural environments  Ecological processes operate  Immigration: new species  Processes intensify as population grows  Competition for scarce resources: housing, jobs, food…  Disturbed equilibrium (social order)  How is social order achieved in such ethnic diversity...Assimilation Four parts of assimilation process: 1. Competition  Groups pursue their own interests without paying attention to other individuals or groups 2. Conflict  Groups consciously try to eliminate other individuals or groups 3. Accommodation  Adjustment in order to reduce conflict and achieve mutual security 4. Assimilation  Separate groups acquire each other’s culture, or become part of a common culture Segregation  A form of accommodation  “Tolerated, but not fully accepted”  Indicates: accommodation, conflictual tolerance, satisfies needs  “A stranger amongst us…”  “On the fringes of society”  May prevent disorganization Structural Functionalism  Talcott Parsons  1902-1978  American  Emerges in the late thirties, early forties when American society was beginning to recover from the depression  Shows us something about our system which ultimately is a good system Organic Analogy  Life forms  Food, defense, procreation, adaptation  Organs: perform specific functions  Contribute to existence of organism  Combined activity of all of them keeps the organ alive Existence of Society (AGIL) Adaptation: to situational exigency (environmental change, war, famine…) Goal attainment: must attain its collective goal (population increase, health…) Integration: must regulate interactions (institutional, individual…) Latency: maintain/renew cultural belief Society: Social system  A system of interrelated parts  Organs, institutions  Key institutions: economy, polity, religion, family, education  Contribute, compliment each other  Hierarchical: roles, expectations, rewards  Inequality is systemic  Ultimate result: existence of society (AGIL) Parson’s Structural-Functional Model of Society – Institutional Interaction (Ref. Diagram)  Family: sexual regulation, socialization  Education: knowledge; citizens’ collective ideals, loyalty  Politics: leadership, compliance  Economy: necessities of life, employment  Religion: moral codes, compassion Source of Crime/Deviance 1. Partial-legitimation of disapproved acts  Increases likelihood of deviance, ex. Tattoos, marijuana 2. Contradictory values  Between society/subculture 3. Social stratification  Lower classes are less likely to be subje
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