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Lecture 10

SOC307 Lecture 10.docx

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Reza Barmaki

SOC307 Lecture 10 TRANSMISSION OF CULTURE: THE LEARNING THEORY -Edwin Sutherland -Differential association: through interaction with others -individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques & motives for criminal behavior -Crime occurs when: there are learned criminal values & motives / override / mainstream values (pro-social) (you grow up in gang families) Interactional factors effected degree of learned values -frequency (how many times) -duration (how long) -priority (early associations) -intensity (strength) ALBERT COHEN (lower-class focal concerns) -most delinquent acts: *not motivated by money *occurred in gangs (young/working class males) *a youth culture "buzz" -"focal concerns" of members: widespread & persistent attention *high degree of emotional involvement -> trouble making, toughness, street smartness, excitement, fate, autonomy *for these people, they have no other alternatives of fun. They can't afford that trip to Hawaii for fun so they steal and engage in delinquent acts THORSTEN STELLIN -homogenous society -norms of behavior will emerge -become laws -enforced to preserve the unitary culture -deviation is unlikely -if found, it is punished Heterogenous society -subcultures emerge -diverge from mainstream culture -establish their own norms -particularly ethnic groups/youth -inter-subculture conflicts also emerges Mainstream & subcultures 1) if balance of power is equal: accomodate each other 2) if mainstream more powerfull: subcultures are defined as deviant CLOWARD & OHLIN -illegitimate opportunity structure -running parallel to the legal one -operates on 3 levels Level 1: Criminal Subculture: Forms when there are: -stable working class communities -> with contacts in illegal groups -role models who make crime pay -career structure for aspiring criminals Level 2: Conflict Subculture: today we call it violent gangs -they usually are not in stable working communities -see a lot of problems around you Level 3: Retreatist Subculture: those who cannot make it through: -legitimate means -violent/serious crime -retreat into: drug, alcoholism, petty theft, shoplifting, prostitution... CONFLICT THEORIES: Assumptions: -different interests -conflict results KARL MARX (1818-1883) -Marxism -class conflict: for Marx, conflict with people becomes conflict b/w classes -capitalism History (Marxs' concept of it) -study of the past: wars, beliefs, political changes... Questions: what were hte causes of WWII? Why did Christianity emerge? POLITICAL HISTORY: outcome of decisions & actions of powerful people (kings/ nobles/ politicians/ generals) SOCIAL HISTORY: Marxism -different social positions -conflicting interests -class conflict -history: result of class conflict Modern industrial capitalism: conflict of interest/ working class/ capitalists (bour
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