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Lecture 10

SOC307H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Zygmunt Bauman, Feudalism, Ruling Class


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC307H5
Professor
Reza Barmaki
Lecture
10

Page:
of 4
SOC307 Lecture 10
TRANSMISSION OF CULTURE: THE LEARNING THEORY
-Edwin Sutherland -Differential association: through interaction with others
-individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques & motives for criminal behavior
-Crime occurs when: there are learned criminal values & motives / override /
mainstream values (pro-social) (you grow up in gang families)
Interactional factors effected degree of learned values
-frequency (how many times) -duration (how long) -priority (early
associations) -intensity (strength)
ALBERT COHEN (lower-class focal concerns)
-most delinquent acts: *not motivated by money *occurred in gangs (young/working
class males) *a youth culture "buzz"
-"focal concerns" of members: widespread & persistent attention *high degree
of emotional involvement
-> trouble making, toughness, street smartness, excitement, fate, autonomy
*for these people, they have no other alternatives of fun. They can't afford that trip to
Hawaii for fun so they steal and engage in delinquent acts
THORSTEN STELLIN
-homogenous society -norms of behavior will emerge -become laws
-enforced to preserve the unitary culture -deviation is unlikely -if found, it is
punished
Heterogenous society
-subcultures emerge -diverge from mainstream culture -establish their own norms
-particularly ethnic groups/youth -inter-subculture conflicts also emerges
Mainstream & subcultures
1) if balance of power is equal: accomodate each other
2) if mainstream more powerfull: subcultures are defined as deviant
CLOWARD & OHLIN
-illegitimate opportunity structure -running parallel to the legal one -operates on 3
levels
Level 1: Criminal Subculture: Forms when there are:
-stable working class communities -> with contacts in illegal groups -role models
who make crime pay -career structure for aspiring criminals
Level 2: Conflict Subculture: today we call it violent gangs
-they usually are not in stable working communities
-see a lot of problems around you
Level 3: Retreatist Subculture: those who cannot make it through:
-legitimate means -violent/serious crime -retreat into: drug, alcoholism, petty
theft, shoplifting, prostitution...
CONFLICT THEORIES: Assumptions:
-different interests -conflict results
KARL MARX (1818-1883)
-Marxism -class conflict: for Marx, conflict with people becomes conflict b/w classes
-capitalism
History (Marxs' concept of it)
-study of the past: wars, beliefs, political changes...
Questions: what were hte causes of WWII? Why did Christianity emerge?
POLITICAL HISTORY: outcome of decisions & actions of powerful people (kings/ nobles/
politicians/ generals)
SOCIAL HISTORY: Marxism
-different social positions -conflicting interests -class conflict -history: result of
class conflict
Modern industrial capitalism: conflict of interest/ working class/ capitalists
(bourgeoisie)
CLASS
-relation to the "means of production" -factories/ land/ machinery/ labour
-necessities of life, luxury, wealth
Source of conflict: ownership
-owners of means of production -wealthy VERSUS
-only have labor to sell for wages -laborers/ workers -low wages/ poverty
ONE RESULT: SOCIAL INEQUALITY
Ruling classes: use a variety of means to maintain their ownership
-force, ideology, law, criminal justice system
Forms of conflict (CLASS STRUGGLE)
-forming unions -strikes -violent demonstrations -revolutions
How were things before capitalism?
-primitive communism -pre-calass societies -hunter/gatherers
-no surplus: in excess of necessities= no private property, =collective ownership,
=absence of: government, inequality, exploitation
Beginning of class conflict
-slave societies (Ancient Greece, Rome)
*people were able to produce more and that became a source of wealth
-first class divisions: patricians / commoners, slaves
-formation of surplus: private property, classes, government, inequality, exploitation
*low classes & slaves, decurions (notables & rich citizens), senators/knights & their
wives
Feudal society: class struggle: lords and serfs
Forms of society: slave societies (Greece), feudal societies, capitalist societies
Ruling class: patricians, lords, capitalists
Ruled class: commoners/slaves, serfs, laborers
Example: ancient, 12th century Europe, 19th century ENgland
formation of surplus>>>> private property>>>> class
-government, inequality, exploitation... (opposite of pre-class societies)
Capitalism was Marx's concern
-massive inequality -unequal distribution of wealth
-byproducts: poverty, alienation, crime etc.
SOCIAL CONTROL
1) Force: criminal justice system, police, jails, court
Example: the US, 2.3 million people in jail
2) Ideology: reflects, justifies & protects / interests of ruling class
Forms of ideology: arts, religion, politics, law, education
PLURALIST CONFLICT THEORY: Conception of Society
-competing interest groups -economic/political/social
-differential access to power & wealth
-successful in materializing their interests -protect it through: laws, justice system,
ideology
-Authorities: not impartial administrators of law -protect interests of their own
favorite groups
What about the powerless?
-viewed as threats to these interests -called dangerous classes -their activities
defined as crime
-powerful: impose their own definitions of 'good', 'right', 'moral' through laws/
education
FEMINISM: emphasizes:
-patriarchal domination -systemic male domination females
-dimensions of domination: economic, political, social
-patriarchal culture: culture of violent male domination, income inequality= powerless,