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Lecture 8

SOC307-Lecture 8.docx

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Reza Barmaki

Social Control Paradigm Aug 8, 2012 Fundamental Assumptions  Anyone can commit crime  Motives are diverse ex: addiction, jealousy, rage  No dominant motive (s)  Not useful to study motives  Focus on: restraining forces  Push towards conformity  When absent: deviance  Main restraints: family, socialization, social ties…. Containment Theory (Walter Reckless)  All human can commit crime  1) Inner pressure-towards deviance -Failure, frustration, boredom….  2) External pressures -Poverty, bad friends…  Many resist these pressures  Inner and outer containment  When absent: deviance 1) Inner Containment  Favourable image of oneself (self-esteem)  Strong ethics, goal oriented  Result of proper parental socialization 2) External Containment  Supervision & discipline  Strong social relationships  Conventional values/activities  School, church, neighborhood…..  Travis Hirschi 1) Attachment  To people  Provide: support, care, supervision  Examples  I talk to my friends in time of need  I am not eager to move out of my parents house  My parents are good role models 2) Commitment  Following socially-approved behaviour  Examples:  I don’t smoke  Don’t drink a lot  Don’t skip school  I attend mosque 3) Involvement  Time spent in conventional activities  Less time for deviance  Example  I spent time with my family  I work part-time  Play basketball on weekends 4) Beliefs  Belief in common values  Dominant value system  Example  It is important to own a home  It is important to respect police  Education is important Sykes and Matza  Observed:  Most delinquents eventually opt out of delinquent lifestyle as they grow older  Argued:  There is a basic code of morality in place  But it is often neutralized Neutralization Theory  Methods used to temporarily neutralize pro-social values  Normally prohibit deviance  Morality, respect for law… Inner obstacles that much be neutralized  Guilt over illegal acts  Respect and admiration for honest, law-abiding individuals  Line between those can be victimized and those who cannot  Demands for conformity Neutralization Techniques 1) Denial of responsibility  Offenders claim they were victims of circumstances beyond their control  “I don’t know what happened”  “It just happened” 2) Denial of injury  Offenders insist their actions did not cause any harm/damage  No harm done  “I just borrowed it”  “They can afford it”  “I just roughed him up a little, nothing serious” 3) Denial of (or blaming) of the victim  Offender claims victim deserved whatever action the offender committed  “She had it coming”  “He provoked me”  “He does it to others” 4) Condemnation of condemners  Offenders claim those who condemn their crimes are hypocrites, liars…  They are not any better themselves  “They steal themselves they just don’t get caught” 5) Appeal to higher loyalties  Offenders claim their crime was for the greater good  For long term consequences that justify their actions  “I was helping a friend”  “I did it for my family” 6) Necessity  Offenders claim they had to do it
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