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Lecture

SOC307 Lecture 2

10 Pages
140 Views

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC307H5
Professor
Reza Barmaki

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Scientific Approach to World Lecture 2 (July 6th 2011) Criminology  The scientific approach to the study of crime Science:  Method investigation  Rule-bound:  data collection  hypothesis testing  formulating theory  etc.  examples: Biology, Physics, Chemistry...  All sciences use the scientific method  it is what makes them "sciences"  ex: Maring Biologist What are other approaches? How is scientific approach different from them? Religious Approach (Pre-scientific/unscientific)  premises of all religions: A- there are supernatural forces beyond ordinary human powers (demons, gods, angels, spirits...) B- control/intervene natural and social processes C-this can be direct or indirect through humans or animals D- some for good and some for bad (evil) --> Crime/deviance The First Murder: Cain kills Abel  Why humans commit evil acts (crime)? 1- influenced by "evil" forces 2-their own nature: Scientific Approach to World Lecture 2 (July 6th 2011) -wicked (sinful) -weak (easily tempted) GOOD forces & acts: positive results  Harmony  order normality  Happiness  Enlightenment  Peace of mind  Salvation...  etc. Various forms of punishment  By God(s):  Hell  plague  etc.  By humans:  Excommunication  Burning at the stake  etc. Middle ages Europe (Christianity)  Crime & deviance  Possessed or influenced:  Satanic forces: witches and demons Demonology  A branch of theology  Study of malevolent supernatural beings  How they influence humans to act  Punishment for such act Scientific Approach to World Lecture 2 (July 6th 2011) Innocent if:  task completed  etc Are these true? Are they verifiable?  Do not ask questions about the ways of God  God works in mysterious ways  gods reasoning is beyond human understanding Science  systematic observation, testing, data collection..  scientists do not refers to gods, demons and angels to explain the world  including human behavior Why did science become predominant way of understanding the world? Modernity & Rise of Science Three main components: 1- industrialization: large scale, organized production and use of technology and science 2-Urbanization: rise of cities with large populations 3-capitalism: production of commodities for profit making all needed reliable knowledge/expertise for their operation/planning they also created numerous problems:  dislocation & Migration  Alienation & Anomie  Unemployment & poverty  Sanitation & health  Physical/mental illnesses Scientific Approach to World Lecture 2 (July 6th 2011)  crime  reliable knowledge & expertise needed to help with problems Early Biological theories BORN CRIMINAL THEORY Premises: -criminality is inborn -it shows itself in the physical appearance of the criminal -these signs can be used to identify criminals Body shape, facial features, skull size Physiognomy  Concentrated on facial features Compare to what?  idealized images of European, white The theory reflected  Racial & class hatred  Lower Classes/races considere:  Low intelligence  Criminality  Degeneration (physical & mental) Scientific Approach to World Lecture 2 (July 6th 2011) Eugenics  study and practice of selective breeding  applied to humans  Goals: -improving the species -countering racial degeneration -preserving the purity of "white" race Methods  Promoting marriages of desired races  Birth control drugs  Marriage restrictions  Segregation  Forced sterilzatio  etc Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828, German)  Phrenology  Brain: Location of our personality traits  Each part contains certain traits Combativeness, friendliness, deviousness, religiousness  Strong parts showed themselves in the shape of the skull  Criminals aggressive traits are expressed by the prominent skull bumps Craniometry  Classifying human types on the basis of skull measurements (size)  Too large, too small: sign of deviance  Contained all forms of biases Scientific Approach to World Lecture 2 (July 6th
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