Class Notes (839,330)
Canada (511,272)
Sociology (4,081)
SOC307H5 (49)

SOC307 Lecture 2

10 Pages

Course Code
Reza Barmaki

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 10 pages of the document.
Scientific Approach to World Lecture 2 (July 6th 2011) Criminology  The scientific approach to the study of crime Science:  Method investigation  Rule-bound:  data collection  hypothesis testing  formulating theory  etc.  examples: Biology, Physics, Chemistry...  All sciences use the scientific method  it is what makes them "sciences"  ex: Maring Biologist What are other approaches? How is scientific approach different from them? Religious Approach (Pre-scientific/unscientific)  premises of all religions: A- there are supernatural forces beyond ordinary human powers (demons, gods, angels, spirits...) B- control/intervene natural and social processes C-this can be direct or indirect through humans or animals D- some for good and some for bad (evil) --> Crime/deviance The First Murder: Cain kills Abel  Why humans commit evil acts (crime)? 1- influenced by "evil" forces 2-their own nature: Scientific Approach to World Lecture 2 (July 6th 2011) -wicked (sinful) -weak (easily tempted) GOOD forces & acts: positive results  Harmony  order normality  Happiness  Enlightenment  Peace of mind  Salvation...  etc. Various forms of punishment  By God(s):  Hell  plague  etc.  By humans:  Excommunication  Burning at the stake  etc. Middle ages Europe (Christianity)  Crime & deviance  Possessed or influenced:  Satanic forces: witches and demons Demonology  A branch of theology  Study of malevolent supernatural beings  How they influence humans to act  Punishment for such act Scientific Approach to World Lecture 2 (July 6th 2011) Innocent if:  task completed  etc Are these true? Are they verifiable?  Do not ask questions about the ways of God  God works in mysterious ways  gods reasoning is beyond human understanding Science  systematic observation, testing, data collection..  scientists do not refers to gods, demons and angels to explain the world  including human behavior Why did science become predominant way of understanding the world? Modernity & Rise of Science Three main components: 1- industrialization: large scale, organized production and use of technology and science 2-Urbanization: rise of cities with large populations 3-capitalism: production of commodities for profit making all needed reliable knowledge/expertise for their operation/planning they also created numerous problems:  dislocation & Migration  Alienation & Anomie  Unemployment & poverty  Sanitation & health  Physical/mental illnesses Scientific Approach to World Lecture 2 (July 6th 2011)  crime  reliable knowledge & expertise needed to help with problems Early Biological theories BORN CRIMINAL THEORY Premises: -criminality is inborn -it shows itself in the physical appearance of the criminal -these signs can be used to identify criminals Body shape, facial features, skull size Physiognomy  Concentrated on facial features Compare to what?  idealized images of European, white The theory reflected  Racial & class hatred  Lower Classes/races considere:  Low intelligence  Criminality  Degeneration (physical & mental) Scientific Approach to World Lecture 2 (July 6th 2011) Eugenics  study and practice of selective breeding  applied to humans  Goals: -improving the species -countering racial degeneration -preserving the purity of "white" race Methods  Promoting marriages of desired races  Birth control drugs  Marriage restrictions  Segregation  Forced sterilzatio  etc Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828, German)  Phrenology  Brain: Location of our personality traits  Each part contains certain traits Combativeness, friendliness, deviousness, religiousness  Strong parts showed themselves in the shape of the skull  Criminals aggressive traits are expressed by the prominent skull bumps Craniometry  Classifying human types on the basis of skull measurements (size)  Too large, too small: sign of deviance  Contained all forms of biases Scientific Approach to World Lecture 2 (July 6th
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.