The scientific approach to the study of crime. Ex: maring biologist it is what makes them sciences A- there are supernatural forces beyond ordinary human powers (demons, gods, angels, spirits) C-this can be direct or indirect through humans or animals. D- some for good and some for bad (evil) --> crime/deviance. Do not ask questions about the ways of god. Science systematic observation, testing, data collection scientists do not refers to gods, demons and angels to explain the world including human behavior. 1- industrialization: large scale, organized production and use of technology and science. 3-capitalism: production of commodities for profit making all needed reliable knowledge/expertise for their operation/planning they also created numerous problems: Lecture 2 (july 6th 2011) crime reliable knowledge & expertise needed to help with problems. It shows itself in the physical appearance of the criminal. These signs can be used to identify criminals. Compare to what? idealized images of european, white.