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SOC307 Lecture 4

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Reza Barmaki

Lecture 4 July 13, 2011 Behavioral Psychology  B.F. SKinner  1904-1990  American Premises  animal behavior can be studied for understanding human behavior  environment conditions behavior Questions:  how do you control behavior of an organism? animal or human beings  how do you get the conduct (response) that you want? -Operant conditioning -Controlling the organism Answer:  Control consequences of an action  use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior There are four ways controlling organisms behavior: because there are 4 different ways Punishment (1) Positive punishment  behavior is followed by an unpleasant stimulus *electric shock or loud noise experiment)  Result: decrease in that behavior  Example in human behavior: stealing --> cut hands (2) Negative punishment  behavior is followed by the removal of a favorable stimulus  e.g.: taking away a child's toy following an undesired behavior  e.g.: giving people the silent treatment (removing your friendship) Lecture 4 July 13, 2011 For serious unwanted behavior  Loss of freedom  Loss of life These two forms of punishments result in : decrease in wan unwanted behavior what if you want to increase a behavior Reinforcements (3) positive reinforcement  behavior is followed by a favorable stimulus - commonly seen as pleasant - rewards  increases frequency of that behavior (4) negative reinforcement  behavior is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus  Examples: torture, bullying, intimidation... Frustration - aggression theory  theory expectation: -economic (job, money...) -social (love, respect...) -political  Results in: (A) aggression (B) other responses withdrawal, quitting, abandoning Lecture 4 July 13, 2011 Forms Aggressions (1) Outward -real source -imagined source -displaced aggression  Physical, verbal, intimidation...  Crime/deviance  Social reaction takes places  Deviance is controlled (2) Inward  self-hate  suicide Response other than aggression  Self-isolation  Quitting, abandoning  Self-righteousness  Superiority  Hating the world  etc. Criminal mind perspective  Criminals are psychologically different from others  this is before committing any crime  Characterized by criminal thought patterns  it shows itsel f childhood & adolescence The politics of science  influenced by conservative Lecture 4 July 13, 2011  fast trials  log prison sentences  blame-the-individual policy  diverts attention from social condition Contemporary Biological & Physiological Psychological..... Sociobiology  Premise:  Life is struggle for survival & reproductive success  humans: socioeconomic success is required  correct combination of factors for success:  (1) Biology  (2) Environment  (3) Learning Wrong combination  Maladaptive behavior  Social and reproductive failure (1) Biology (nature)  Some behavior are not learned  Biologically determined  Genes, drives, instincts...  No variation across  Species  cultures  examples: Breast feeding (biologically-determined)  Shared by our genetic relatives (monkeys)  Learning period may be dangerous to survival chances Lecture 4 July 13, 2011 Determined behavior  Feeding  nest building  etc.  Some animals (turtles) take care of their offspring  Genes: inborn behavioural program (2) Environment  Successful social life requires 'correct' behavior  Adaptation  Socioeconomic success increases chances of reproductive success  Socioeconomic failure decreases chances of reproductive success (3) Learning  Learning effects behavior positively towards social success, or negatively...  Environment is crucial in learning (Family, nei
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