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SOC307 Lecture 5

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Reza Barmaki

Lecture 5 - Victims & Victimization July 18, 2011 Who? is likely to be a victim? Factors: - Age, Gender, Ethnicity, Social status, Location What? - Type of crime - different groups are victims of different crimes: violent, sexual harassment, economic, political, etc. Why?  In social sciences: Theoretical explanations  Victimization theory Victim precipitation theory  individuals may cause their own victimization (a) Active precipitation: -Victim as the initiator -initiates confrontation -Ends up the victim (getting injured, death) -Why? Many reasons Anger, drunkenness, accidents, miscalculations (b) Passive precipitation -Victim unknowingly causes his/her own victimization -Shows characteristics and/or behavior perceived by offender as threat or danger -effects the offender emotionally -jealous girlfriend? -what other reasons? *ethnicity *unconventionality *economic reasons (unemployed..) *envy *etc. Lecture 5 - Victims & Victimization July 18, 2011 Passive precipitation was used a legal defense in rape cases  Rapist was provoked  Female provoked it: provocative dress, behaviour...  "she asked for it"  Partriarchal Routine activities theory  availability of suitable targets  absence of capable guardians  presence of motivated offenders Suitability (human targets)  increases victimization chances  weakness -physical -mental -social powerless, poor Lifestyle Theories  Intentional high-risk lifestyle (outgoing late night, nightclubs/bars, deviant peers, etc)  increases probability of being a victim Highest risk category: Poor, young, black males Proximity hypothesis  Unintentional exposure to danger --> being a victim  Living close to a highrisk neighborhood Equivalent Group hypothesis  deviance & victimization are highly related  criminals are likely to become victims themselves  e.g.: gang members Lecture 5 - Victims & Victimization July 18, 2011 Alternatives to confinement Community Corrections  Correctional programs and the supervision of offenders that take place in the community, rather than in institutional settings  point: to keep offenders from being incarcerated (1) Diversion  first-time, low-risk offenders  objectives: (a) avoidance of negative labeling and stigmatization (b) reduction of unnecessary social control and coercion (c) reduction of re-offending (d) provision of corrective services (e) reduction of costs (2) Probation  For cases in which there is no minimum penalty prescribed  judge may order probation  probation is the most frequently imposed sanction (especially in youth courts) -->cuz of the costs (3) Intermediate Sanctions  a variety of correctional programs that fall between traditional probation and incarceration  may include: fines, community service, home detention... (4) Restorative/community Justice  principles: - Crime injures victim, community and the offender -efforts to address and resolve problems created by the offence should involve the three parties One Form: Shaming (1) Stigmatizing shaming: characteristics  offender humiliation Lecture 5 - Victims & Victimization July 18, 2011  use of degradation ceremonies: - courts, jail processing, etc. -corroborate deviance rather than conclude deviance  attachment of formal labeling to offender after the degradation -juvenile delinquent  the non-normative behavior becomes the
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