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Lecture

Lecture

8 pages109 viewsWinter 2011

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC307H5
Professor
Reza Barmaki

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Crime and Delinquency: Reza Barmaki
Jan.09.10Lecture Three
1
CONCEPTIONS OF DETERRENCE THAT RESULTED FROM THESE THEORIES
Classical sociology claims that the reason why we carry out acts is because we
seek pleasure,
and want to minimize pain.
Intellectual pleasure
Meaningful pleasure
The classical sociology was based solely on Cost/benefit analysis/Rationalty.
In order to get rid of crime we need to increase the pain aspect
Increase the COST of the act.
ASSUMPTIONS OF DETERRENCE THEORY
Humans are hedonistic
Humans only want to increase pleasure and avoid pain
Knowledge of painful consequences has a deterring effect.
HOW DOES THE DETERRENCE THEORY WORK
Example:
1. You and your friend need money
2. You have to work for it for two weeks (pain).
3. OR you can rob a bank in 30 seconds and get the money (Pleasure).
4. You think about it
5. What would stop you and your friend from actually doing this?
DETERRENCE STOPS US FROM DOING IMMORAL ACTS. WE
HAVE KNOWLEDGE
THAT IF WE DO, WE WILL GET INCREASED PAIN.
** The more that people know about the consequence of an actionthe more likely
that they
will be deterred**
FORMS OF DETERRENCE
1. Absolute Deterrence
Entails a form of penalty.
- The penalty needs to be terrible and swift
The goal of absolute deterrence is to ensure that crime does not
occur.
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Crime and Delinquency: Reza Barmaki
Jan.09.10Lecture Three
2
-Example: Someone who is released from jail; prevents them
from re-
offending due to the experiences occurred within the
prison.
2. General Deterrence
A public punishment
- Occurs within the public realm.
- Ensures a great amount of public shame
- The punishment is very SURE, RAPID, TERRIBLE.
Occurs for rather serious crimes (murder, robbery).
General deterrence has two goals:
a. Punishment of the individual (offender correction is not
intended)
instead they just want to punish the offender for his act.
The goal here is not to correct/rehabilitate
b. Sending a message
c. General prevention of crime
This type of deterrence tends to lead to public shame/honour.
3. Specific Deterrence
Focuses on the individual offender
Goal is to Rehabilitate the offenderdiscourage continued
future acts.
Includes educational classes: basic literacy, ethics, religion
This type of deterrence tries to bring people back into society
4. Relative Deterrence
Changing the frequency and effectiveness of deterrence
Increase visibility of surveillance
Increase the seriousness of a punishment
Goals of Relative deterrence:
a. Introduction of uncertainty into the would-be-law
breakers.
-People do not know if someone is watching the cameras
hence
this causes uncertainty.
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Crime and Delinquency: Reza Barmaki
Jan.09.10Lecture Three
3
5. Incapacitation
Goal is to take away offenders to commit any form of crime.
Rehabilitation is NOT the goal
You want to isolate these offenders from society.
6. Restrictive Deterrence
Forcing offenders to modify their habits in order to avoid
punishment.
eg: Someone who is selling drugs, might be pushed to sell stolen
goods (
as this is not as bad as selling drugs
Forcing people to change the type of crime and frequency.
EMILE DURKHEIM
Primary Question: What keeps people together?
Solidarity, integration, social order
How do we maintain social order?
1. Shared Values: beliefs, norms, ect.
-collective consciousness/conscious
criminal laws, criminal codes are a form of collective
consciousness.
2. Division of Labour (functions)
Division of labour makes people dependant on other people
eg: You depend on people to make you food, those people
depend on their suppliers to send them ingredients, ect.
Durkheim distinguished between two forms of societies.
He claims that we have moved from a mechanical to a ORGANIC solidarity
society.
1. Mechanical Solidarity
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