Phallic stage: (age 3-6) >>> development of superego (conscience, morality) Awareness: sexual identity = male-female sexual differences. Boys: focus on mother (first love, subconsciously) * father is stronger = punishment (castration anxiety) Complex = pattern = desires, wishes, memories in unconscious organized around common theme. = incorporation into ego of fathers personality characteristics. * social rules = id cannot have everything. Blocking emotions, and ideas from conscious mind. Temporary solution to id and ego conflict. * animal behaviour useful for understanding human behaviour. - learned behaviour based on how you are rewarded (reward vs. punishment) Punishment (1) positive: behaviour followed by unpleasant stimulus. * result: decrease unwanted behaviour (2) negative removal of favourable stimulus. Reinforcements (3) positive: favourable stimulus (rewards) (4) negative: removal unpleasant stimulus. Result: increase in desirable behaviour ie. (manipulating rats) Narcissistic (no remorse/compassion), selfish, aggressive, impatient, irresponsible, difficulty with authority. Beliefs: innocent & justified / victims are guilty / other can be used.