Class Notes (837,548)
Canada (510,312)
Sociology (4,081)
SOC307H5 (49)


5 Pages
Unlock Document

Reza Barmaki

SOC307 July 13th Punishment 1. Positive Punishment - 2. Negative Punishment - behaviour is followed by the removal of a favourable stimulus - ex. taking away a child’s toy following an undesirable behaviour - ex. the silent treatment These 2 forms of punishment result in: - decrease in an unwanted behaviour - but what if you want to encourage a behaviour you find desirable? Reinforcements 3. Positive Reinforcement - behaviour is followed by a favourable stimulus - commonly seen as pleasant - rewards: o increases frequency of that behaviour 4. Negative Reinforcement - behaviour is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus - ex. torture, bullying, intimidation Frustration-Aggression Theory - frustrated expectations o economic – job, money o social – love, respect o political - results in: o 1. aggression o 2. other responses  ex. withdrawal, quitting, abandoning 1. Aggression 1. outward aggression - real source - imagined source - displaced aggression o physical, verbal, intimidation o crime/deviance  when you show your aggression, society reacts – deviance is controlled 2. inward aggression - can’t go after forces – find them too strong - self-hate – suicide 2. Responses other than aggression: o self-isolation o self-righteousness o quitting/abandoning o superiority o hating the world Criminal Mind Perspective - criminals are psychologically different from others - this is before committing any crime – they are born different - characterized by criminal thought patterns - it shows itself in childhood and adolescence - deceitful, rebellious, lying, cheating, stealing.. The Politics of Science - influenced by conservative politics - reaction to 60s and 70s - helped justify repressive state measures - fast trials - long prison sentences - blame-the-individual policy - diverts attention from social conditions - controlling poor - overcrowded jails Contemporary Biological and Physiological Explanations of Crime Socio-biology - premise: life is a struggle for survival and reproductive success - humans: socio-economic success is required - correct combination of factors for success: o 1. biology o 2. environment o 3. learning Wrong Combination - maladaptive behaviour - social and reproductive failure 1. Biology - some behaviours are not learned – biologically determined o genes, drives, instincts o ex. breastfeeding, feeding for birds, nest building o shared by our genetic relatives – ex. chimps o learning period may be dangerous to survival chances – predators o some animals do not take care of their offspring o genes: inborn behavioural program - no variation across: o species o cultures 2. Environment - successful social life requires “correct” behaviour - adaptation - socio-economic failure decreases chances of reproductive success 3. Learning - learning effects behaviour positively towards social success of negatively… - environment is crucial to learning o ex. family, neighbourhood, school, peers - emphasize: o nutritional deficiencies o hormones o neurological impairments o brain dysfunctions o syndromes o mental deficiencies Fetal Alcohol Syndrome - growth retardation - teenage deviant behaviour - unusual facial features - crime in adulthood - mental retardation Violence - aggression - intent to inflict harm or instil fear: o physical and/or o psychological - violence is pervasive o permeates all aspects of our lives  interpersonal  institutional  international Roots of Violence 1. Personal Traits o neurological impairment o psychosis o personality disorders o childhood abuse  resulting in brutalization o brutalization:  child is violently treated by parents  develops aggressive identity  commits violence against ot
More Less

Related notes for SOC307H5

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.