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SOC307H5 Lecture Notes - Intellectual Disability, Silent Treatment, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

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Reza Barmaki

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July 13th
1. Positive Punishment
2. Negative Punishment
-behaviour is followed by the removal of a favourable stimulus
-ex. taking away a child’s toy following an undesirable behaviour
-ex. the silent treatment
These 2 forms of punishment result in:
-decrease in an unwanted behaviour
-but what if you want to encourage a behaviour you find desirable?
3. Positive Reinforcement
-behaviour is followed by a favourable stimulus
-commonly seen as pleasant
oincreases frequency of that behaviour
4. Negative Reinforcement
-behaviour is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus
-ex. torture, bullying, intimidation
Frustration-Aggression Theory
-frustrated expectations
oeconomic – job, money
osocial – love, respect
-results in:
o1. aggression
o2. other responses
ex. withdrawal, quitting, abandoning
1. Aggression
1. outward aggression
-real source
-imagined source
-displaced aggression
ophysical, verbal, intimidation
when you show your aggression, society reacts – deviance is controlled
2. inward aggression
-can’t go after forces – find them too strong
-self-hate – suicide
2. Responses other than aggression :
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ohating the world
Criminal Mind Perspective
-criminals are psychologically different from others
-this is before committing any crime – they are born different
-characterized by criminal thought patterns
-it shows itself in childhood and adolescence
-deceitful, rebellious, lying, cheating, stealing..
The Politics of Science
-influenced by conservative politics
-reaction to 60s and 70s
-helped justify repressive state measures
-fast trials
-long prison sentences
-blame-the-individual policy
-diverts attention from social conditions
-controlling poor
-overcrowded jails
Contemporary Biological and Physiological Explanations of Crime
-premise: life is a struggle for survival and reproductive success
-humans: socio-economic success is required
-correct combination of factors for success:
o1. biology
o2. environment
o3. learning
Wrong Combination
-maladaptive behaviour
-social and reproductive failure
1. Biology
-some behaviours are not learned – biologically determined
ogenes, drives, instincts
oex. breastfeeding, feeding for birds, nest building
oshared by our genetic relatives – ex. chimps
olearning period may be dangerous to survival chances – predators
osome animals do not take care of their offspring
ogenes: inborn behavioural program
-no variation across:
2. Environment
-successful social life requires “correct” behaviour
-socio-economic failure decreases chances of reproductive success
3. Learning
-learning effects behaviour positively towards social success of negatively…
-environment is crucial to learning
oex. family, neighbourhood, school, peers
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