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SOC307H5 (49)
Lecture

Punishment
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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC307H5
Professor
Reza Barmaki
Semester
Summer

Description
SOC307 July 13th Punishment 1. Positive Punishment - 2. Negative Punishment - behaviour is followed by the removal of a favourable stimulus - ex. taking away a child’s toy following an undesirable behaviour - ex. the silent treatment These 2 forms of punishment result in: - decrease in an unwanted behaviour - but what if you want to encourage a behaviour you find desirable? Reinforcements 3. Positive Reinforcement - behaviour is followed by a favourable stimulus - commonly seen as pleasant - rewards: o increases frequency of that behaviour 4. Negative Reinforcement - behaviour is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus - ex. torture, bullying, intimidation Frustration-Aggression Theory - frustrated expectations o economic – job, money o social – love, respect o political - results in: o 1. aggression o 2. other responses  ex. withdrawal, quitting, abandoning 1. Aggression 1. outward aggression - real source - imagined source - displaced aggression o physical, verbal, intimidation o crime/deviance  when you show your aggression, society reacts – deviance is controlled 2. inward aggression - can’t go after forces – find them too strong - self-hate – suicide 2. Responses other than aggression: o self-isolation o self-righteousness o quitting/abandoning o superiority o hating the world Criminal Mind Perspective - criminals are psychologically different from others - this is before committing any crime – they are born different - characterized by criminal thought patterns - it shows itself in childhood and adolescence - deceitful, rebellious, lying, cheating, stealing.. The Politics of Science - influenced by conservative politics - reaction to 60s and 70s - helped justify repressive state measures - fast trials - long prison sentences - blame-the-individual policy - diverts attention from social conditions - controlling poor - overcrowded jails Contemporary Biological and Physiological Explanations of Crime Socio-biology - premise: life is a struggle for survival and reproductive success - humans: socio-economic success is required - correct combination of factors for success: o 1. biology o 2. environment o 3. learning Wrong Combination - maladaptive behaviour - social and reproductive failure 1. Biology - some behaviours are not learned – biologically determined o genes, drives, instincts o ex. breastfeeding, feeding for birds, nest building o shared by our genetic relatives – ex. chimps o learning period may be dangerous to survival chances – predators o some animals do not take care of their offspring o genes: inborn behavioural program - no variation across: o species o cultures 2. Environment - successful social life requires “correct” behaviour - adaptation - socio-economic failure decreases chances of reproductive success 3. Learning - learning effects behaviour positively towards social success of negatively… - environment is crucial to learning o ex. family, neighbourhood, school, peers - emphasize: o nutritional deficiencies o hormones o neurological impairments o brain dysfunctions o syndromes o mental deficiencies Fetal Alcohol Syndrome - growth retardation - teenage deviant behaviour - unusual facial features - crime in adulthood - mental retardation Violence - aggression - intent to inflict harm or instil fear: o physical and/or o psychological - violence is pervasive o permeates all aspects of our lives  interpersonal  institutional  international Roots of Violence 1. Personal Traits o neurological impairment o psychosis o personality disorders o childhood abuse  resulting in brutalization o brutalization:  child is violently treated by parents  develops aggressive identity  commits violence against ot
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