Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
UTM (20,000)
SOC (4,000)

SOC307H5 Lecture Notes - Routine Activity Theory, Juvenile Delinquency, Cognitive Dissonance

Course Code
Reza Barmaki

of 4
July 18th
Precipitation Theory
1. Active Participation
-victim as initiator
-indicated confrontation
-ends in victim getting injured/death
-why? money reasons:
oanger, drunkness, accidents
2. Passive Precipitation
-victim unknowingly causes his/her victimization
-shows characteristics and/or behaviour perceived by officer as threat or danger
-affects offender emotionally
-jealous girlfriend?
-ex. ethnicity, economic reasons, envy, unconventionality
-passive precipitation was used as a legal defence in rape cases
orapist was provoked
ofemale provoked him
o“she asked for it”
opatriarchal attitude
1. Routine Activity Theory
-availability of suitable targets
-absence of capable guardians
-presence of motivated offender
2. Suitability (human types)
-increases victimization chances
-weakness (physical, mental, social)
3. Lifestyle Theory
-intentional high-risk lifestyle
-higher probability of being victim
-ex. being in bars a lot, nightclubs, deviant peers, etc.
-mostly young males (poor and black) – highest risk category
4. Proximity Hypothesis
-unintentional exposure to danger
-being a victim
-living close/in a high risk neighbourhood
5. Equivalent Group Hypothesis
-deviance and victimization are highly related
-criminals likely to become victims themselves
-ex. gang members
Alternatives to Confinement
Community Corrections
-correctional programs and supervision of offenders that takes place in the community,
rather than institutional settings
-point – to keep them from being incarcerated
1. Diversion
-first time, low-risk offenders
oavoidance of negative labelling and stigmatization
odecrease unnecessary social control and coercion
odecrease re-offending
oprovision of corrective services
odecrease costs
2. Probation
-for cases in which there is no minimum penalty prescribed
-judge may order probation
-most frequently imposed sanction
3. Intermediate Sanctions
-variety of correctional programs that fall between traditional probation and incarceration
-ex. fines…
4. Intermediate/Community Justice
-principle – crime injures victim, community and offender
-efforts to address and resolves problems created by the offence should involve the 3
-ex. shaming
1. Stigmatizing Shaming Characteristics
ooffender humiliation
ouse of degrading ceremonies: courts, jail…
ocorroborate deviance rather than conclude deviance
oattachment of formal labelling to offender after degradation
ojuvenile delinquent
oshortcoming: doesn’t reject the act
othe non-normative behaviour becomes master status of offender
ohe/she is known as primarily particular criminal (ex. cheater)
opermanent stigma
opermanent distrust
odisintegration of the moral bonds between offender and community
ooffender separated from community
ocommunity breaks apart
Drawbacks of Stigmatization
-offender rage
-hatred for community
-continuation for violence
-escalation of violence
-defiance as way of restricting shame
2. Re-Integrate Shaming Characteristics
opunishment by community (relatives, friends)
odisapproval of negative behaviour without labelling the person negatively
onot allowing deviance to become a master status
oceremonies attempt to end deviance by raising offender’s awareness of its
harmful consequences for himself, the victim, and the community
ohealing cycles…
-punishing offender’s behaviour rather than the offender
-accept responsibility
-respect community’s norms
-bringing back offender into community
-more effective than remote legal authority (state)
-prevents lies
-prevents denials
-prevents continuation and/or escalation of violence due to offender’s rage
Collective Hate Crime
-perceived membership in certain social groups
orace/ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, class, nationality, political orientation
Hate Groups
-constituent elements:
o1. conformity
tendency to act/think like other members of the group
most common form of social influence
group characteristics determine level of conformity (size, status)
o2. aggression
prejudicial stereotype (common beliefs about a group of people)
prejudicial stereotype (negative stereotypes)
ex. criminal black, Muslim terrorists, lazy welfare recipients, AIDS-
infected gays
why frustrated?
they are typically about 90% male
members more likely to come from lower socioecomic status
unemployed, poor, uneducated
o3. psychological needs
need for belonging
to mean something to other people
redressing alienation and powerlessness
having control over own lives
need for identity
o4. mythology
idealized Aryan, white man
strong, superior, disciplined
destroyer by ethnic minorities
must rule
must destroy enemies