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SOC307H5 (49)

Precipitation Theory

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Reza Barmaki

SOC307 July 18 th Precipitation Theory 1. Active Participation - victim as initiator - indicated confrontation - ends in victim getting injured/death - why? money reasons: o anger, drunkness, accidents 2. Passive Precipitation - victim unknowingly causes his/her victimization - shows characteristics and/or behaviour perceived by officer as threat or danger - affects offender emotionally - jealous girlfriend? - ex. ethnicity, economic reasons, envy, unconventionality - passive precipitation was used as a legal defence in rape cases o rapist was provoked o female provoked him o “she asked for it” o patriarchal attitude 1. Routine Activity Theory - availability of suitable targets - absence of capable guardians - presence of motivated offender 2. Suitability (human types) - increases victimization chances - weakness (physical, mental, social) 3. Lifestyle Theory - intentional high-risk lifestyle - higher probability of being victim - ex. being in bars a lot, nightclubs, deviant peers, etc. - mostly young males (poor and black) – highest risk category 4. Proximity Hypothesis - unintentional exposure to danger - being a victim - living close/in a high risk neighbourhood 5. Equivalent Group Hypothesis - deviance and victimization are highly related - criminals likely to become victims themselves - ex. gang members Alternatives to Confinement Community Corrections - correctional programs and supervision of offenders that takes place in the community, rather than institutional settings - point – to keep them from being incarcerated 1. Diversion - first time, low-risk offenders - objective: o avoidance of negative labelling and stigmatization o decrease unnecessary social control and coercion o decrease re-offending o provision of corrective services o decrease costs 2. Probation - for cases in which there is no minimum penalty prescribed - judge may order probation - most frequently imposed sanction 3. Intermediate Sanctions - variety of correctional programs that fall between traditional probation and incarceration - ex. fines… 4. Intermediate/Community Justice - principle – crime injures victim, community and offender - efforts to address and resolves problems created by the offence should involve the 3 parties - ex. shaming 1. Stigmatizing Shaming Characteristics o offender humiliation o use of degrading ceremonies: courts, jail… o corroborate deviance rather than conclude deviance o attachment of formal labelling to offender after degradation o juvenile delinquent o shortcoming: doesn’t reject the act o the non-normative behaviour becomes master status of offender o he/she is known as primarily particular criminal (ex. cheater) o permanent stigma o permanent distrust o disintegration of the moral bonds between offender and community o offender separated from community o community breaks apart Drawbacks of Stigmatization - offender rage - hatred for community - continuatio
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