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Lecture4outline-SOC309-Summer2013 (1).rtf

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Ivanka Knezevic

Class Outline Course SOC309H5F Lecture 16/05/2013 Topic: Propaganda and persuasion Framing: Refers to an ind issue To Frame is to select some aspect of perceived reality and make them more salient noticale meaningful and memorable in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem defn, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and or treatment recommendation for the problem described Barron and Lacombe framing the female youth—backlash against feminism in the newspaper Means of framing 1. Selective information…to be emphasized or neglected a. Ex: report on a protest against nuclear waste facility. b. Excludes info on leakage in a similar facility—opponents of the planned facility look stupid c. Includes choice of experts (gov;t officials; appearance of trustworthiness) 2. Selective interpretation includes a. Choice of language (scheme both pos and neg cannotations dpends on journaliststo give that interpretation, elixir-medicine, remedy-neg cannotations ex snake oil-patent medicine that doesn’t actually work, panacea-universal solution to the problem, plan) b. Attitude of the reporter ex interviews of proponents and opponents of WTO c. Thus framing can violate journalistic goal of objectivity (balanced reporting) while its form is being reserved d. Inoculation Hall vsAltheide- short ad critical exposure of unpopular view. You cannot completely ignore the minority view however give more time and space to dominant issue view…by exposing you to unpopular view in weakened form mass media is ensuring you do not agree with that unpopular view. What makes a frame successful?  Adherence to an established discursive domain (familiar to audience from other cultural experience: 1. Shudson: Cultural preference for narrative over analysis causes news to be present as a story: concrete character, underrepresentation of broader social forces 2. Dominant value system/ideology  Barron and LCaombe-backlash against fem? Taylor-elected politicians as well meaning ppl? Tewksbury—americans online news consumption supports ideology of polticial absentism  Preferred framing to news stories”  Recent ambiguous, with predictable outcome, immediate to the audience, contain conflict/violence; are neg; events are preffered over concepts; personified; dramatic  Framing is self-reinforcing. Media coverage contributes o the success of the original policy Key educational goals/outcomes for today: Understand that intent of communication is the distinctive feature of propaganda, but that many other forms of communication (news framing, persuasion, advertising) use the same or similar communication techniques. Understand social function of propaganda. Be able to define propaganda and persuasion. Apply the definition of propaganda to any text (i.e. be able to judge if the text is propagandistic or not). Readings Altheide, David L. 2009. “War and Mass Mediated Evidence”, Cultural Studies Critical Methodologies. 9: 1. February. 14-22. Grazian, David. 2010. “Neoliberalism and the realities of reality television.” Contexts. 9; 2. 68- 71. Steeves, H. Leslie. 2008. “CommodifyingAfrica on U.S. Network Reality Television,” Communication, Culture & Critique. 1. 416-446. Questions to guide the reading/to think about ahead of time for students Altheide explains the US media’s compliance with the government’s propaganda about the war in Iraq by the media’s dependence on government officials as news sources / experts. Think about other possible reasons for this compliance. For instance, why were the UK media much more critical of their government’s involvement in the same war than their US counterparts? What is war programming? How does it use information about past wars? What is the timing of criticism within it? Understand the main characteristics of neo-liberal economic doctrine, as summarized by Grazian. What does he mean by claiming that reality TV reflects not only the economic principles of neo-liberalism, but also its morality? Note that reality TV’s avoidance of professional writers and actors has both financial and organisational consequences (increase in producer’s control over staff). How does Grazian interpret the location of reality TV production in developing countries? Identify beneficiaries of particular representations of Africa in the US reality TV shows. Note that they are not identical with the TV networks that produce and air the shows. This situation is common in contemporary society, where mass media take on and distribute messages from various interested parties. Steeves identifies commodification as the central mechanism in reality TV representations of Africa. Which commercial activity is meant to benefit from this representation? Define “hybrid encounter.” Note that the central question of the article is derived from post-colonial theory. What is the question? What does it have to do with propaganda? A GENDA FOR CLASS Introduction We begin the class with a review of agenda-setting and framing. You will notice that some means of framing (information management and connotation) also appear among the usual means of propaganda. What distinguishes the two is the intent of communication: news is not meant to generate attitudes and behaviour which are directly beneficial to the news organisation. Propaganda, however, is communicated for the sole benefit of the propagandist. The main concepts for today Propaganda  Is a one way comm that deliberately and systematically attempts to achieve a response (public opinion and behavior) that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist.  Advertising is propaganda by commercial organisations attempting to achieve consumption  Do not want to hear opinions  Propagandists in control of comm 
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