Need to know models of mass media communication
4/6 short answer
½ essay economics and entertainment
Course SOC309H5F Lecture 13/06/2013
Key educational goals/outcomes for today:
Understand that practice of censorship is much broader than its traditional definition. Be able to
recognize censorship in activities that are not usually described as such.
Know main agents of censorship and their position concerning public accountability.
Know main areas of censored content and understand why they are censored.
Beisel, Nicola. 1990. “Class, Culture, and Campaigns against Vice in ThreeAmerican Cities,
1872-1892”, American Sociological Review, 55: 44-62.
Lindner, Andrew M. 2008. “Controlling the Media in Iraq.” Contexts (7: 2) 32-38.
Questions to guide the reading/to think about ahead of time for students
Beisel uses two factors to explain support for censorship of pornography as a result of class
struggles. Explain her argument.
Beisel explains lack of elite support for anti-vice campaigns in Philadelphia by the composition
and strength of immigrants in that city. Relate her argument.
Summarize main differences between reporting by embedded journalists, in contrast to stories by
other journalists in Iraq. What are, according to Lindner, causes of these differences? Compare
the prominence of published stories by journalists in different positions. What was the
governmental intention in developing the embedded journalists programme? Was this intention
A GENDA FOR CLASS
In-class course evaluations Final examination format
Today we discuss some basic and lesser-known characteristics of censorship. It is important to
remember that the powerful in every society attempt (and often succeed) in limiting the range of
communication available to the population. This need not be done by direct prohibition: making
the content difficult to access (through rating systems some parts of the population, by making
access difficult by storing/showing content in locations with controlled access, or by
“embedding” journalists in military units) is just as effective.
Earlier digital divide by class gender and global location has been replaced by
digital exclusion: lack of ICT access and skills in a society where many activities (eg
employment, education, welfare) are digitized and most of the population has ICT
Internet follows the technological innovation adoption curve If the innovation
confers a social economic advantage early adopters get it, late adopters are excluded
SES is a strong correlate of the content of internet use
Dimaggio: internet use by men and women in N>America equalized by 03’the
inequality appeared again in 07’, particularly in human capital enhancing skills
ICT uses by Can students during lec is gendered (women; email, SNS=social
network sites; men: google lecture content, work on assignment games. In general
internet use provides emotional but not cognitive, benefits to students
SES=social economic status
The main concepts for today
Censorship – definition
Legal def’n governmental denial of freedom of speech. This is NARROW
Reichman 2001: censorship is the removal-, suppression or restricted circulation of
literary, artistic or educational materials. Images, ideas and info-on grounds that these are
morally or otherwise objectionable in light of standards applied by the censor
1559: index librorum prohibitorum
Suppressed in 1966 but an admonitum can still be issued to warn catholics of a dangerous
Ex phillip Rushton-racist wrote books..UofT has chosen censorship to protect students.
Ex Harry potter-Christians do not like it bc it advocates witchcraft-doesn’t need complete
removed also suppressed or restricted
Agents of censorship
1. Specialized gov’t institutions (censorship board