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Lecture 2

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Abigail Salole

January 16, 2013 Broader Context/Representing Youth Crime Garland (1996)  High Crime as a Normal Social Fact- come to accept that crime is a fact and incorporated in our daily lives o Something we can manage individually and as a group  Crime forms part of our daily environment o i.e. people accepting crime will happen and incorporating it by taking precautionary measures (safe walking program)  changes in official discourse- police motto to serve and to protect COPPS  citizens on patrol  encourages citizens to be involved in suveillance  very widespread program  somewhat like neighbourhood watch  The Myth of Sovereign Crime Controls- state capable of providing law and security within its boundaries  The Predicament of Crime Control- need to withdraw their claims to be provider of security- but also must recognize loss of power  Adaptations: criminologies of everyday life (adapts to predicament of crime conotrol by encouraging people to incorporate this criminology into everyday lives)  Responsibilization: acting through non-state actors (state engages non-state actors, more popular under neo-liberalism)  Decriminalization- marijuana (Colarado) O’Malley (1999)  Takes on Garland and argues against him  State not oscillating between contradicting things but rather there are different penal regimes  Penal Regimes:  Different approaches to offenders  e.g. Discipline (i.e. Foucault; idea that punishment has separate and clear boundaries between those punishing and those being punished and you are instilling discipline in offenders; this is also why people commit crime [no discipline] i.e. boot camp with strict regime **rehabilitation is the goal**), Enterprise , Reintegration (idea that offenders can be reintegrated into their community; i.e. community service order) , Punishment (idea is that people are punished and nothing more; i.e. solitary confinement)  Neo-liberal o Attack on welfare of state which came from welfare state that provides everything (attack on state centered governance) o Shift to neo-liberalism which focuses on market efficiency o Advocacy of market as model for most social order o Emphasis on cost efficiency, results based, individual responsibility, freedom of choice **difference between O’Malley and Garland: O’Mally explains that different punishments can coexist under coherent model  The oscillation of strategies described by Garland is best understood in terms of an alliance of ‘new right’- a political alliance that includes both neo-liberal and neo-conservative tendencies  O’Malley- oscillation between adaptation and denial can be seen as existing under umbrella of neo- liberalism  State never actually advocates any control Gray and Salole  One punishment that has different strands and rationales within it  Theory of broad sociological government and applying them at local level  Disciplinary discourse- hierarchy between inmates and staff  Reintegration- young people reintegrating themselves into community  Enterprise- young people asked to participate Broad Trends: MAJOR THEMES OF THE COURSE  ‘governing without government’ (Rhodes 1995)  ‘the death of the social’ (Rose 1996)  ‘risk society’ (Beck 1992)  Governmentality (Foucault 1991) **bring your position back to these broad trends** Popular Consciousness  Youth crime is hot topic o “youth” and “crime”  usually think “young offenders” o sensationalized media representations o recent high-profile violent crimes  Issue of youth crime and violence saturated in the public imagination  reactionary political rhetoric  public opinion  Claim: youth as a group were out-of-control; connected to idea that youth are out of control  Claim: new youth justice legislation required  Ethos of punis
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