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Lecture 2

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Paula Maurutto

Lecture 2- January 18, 2013 From Penal Welfare to Crime Control Penal Welfare to Crime Control  Main Characteristics of o Penal Welfare o Crime Control  How has shift to crime control transformed everyday life?  Crime Prevention vs. Traditional Criminal Justice Approaches; how is crime prevention different from criminal justice approaches  Characteristics of Crime Prevention Characterization of shift from “penal welfarism” to “crime control”  Risk Society (Ulrick Beck & Richard Ericson)  Actuarial Justice (Malcolm Feeley & Johnathan Simon)  Post-Keynesian state (Pat O’Malley)  Culture of Control (David Garland)  New criminology of everyday life **suggesting we entered a new epoc in crime control and it changed the way we think about crime and punishments so we punish differently and for different reasons than in the 1970s Main Characteristics of Penal Welfarism  Characterized by correctionalism and an emphasis on treatment and rehabilitation o Rehabilitation taking strong hold in criminal justice system since 1940s  A reaction against corporal punishment  Focused on disciplining and reforming offenders in order to reintegrate them into society o Idea that people were going to come back in the society so they need to be rehabilitated so they can adequately contribute to society without engaging in criminal behaviour o Development/expansaion of parole, probation, special youth courts  Largely deprived as approach to crime control that emerged with welfare state (early 1900s)  1940s-1970s talk about different era (penal welfarism acording to David Garland)  Same time that social science experts emerging (influenced rise of rehabilitation); rise of field of criminology, sociology and produce experts that focus on rehabilitation o Not a strong focus on politics- crime left to the experts by politicians  1970s-1980s: transition from penal welfarism to crime control o Rooted in economic crisis of 1970s (1973 economic crisis catalyst for emergence of crime control era) o Cultural conservation and economic conservatism o Governments in western world become concerned about spending ; less money available for rehabilitation programs (no longer a viable way of pursuing criminal justicec practices)  Too expensive and not doing what they wanted  Not spend money on it for it to be working well o Promoting anti-welfare social policy o Changed social/political meaning of crime and social welfare **social welfare circles , crime control and economic circles shift to right wing Main Characteristics of Crime Control  Rethinking problem of crime and its management  New modes/practices for governing crime  Increased use of prison o Used more than in 1970s o i.e. U.S. three strikes laws (sent to life imprisonment even for minor offences) o used to incapacitate and segregate and for longer periods of time o youths sent to prison more than in any other country before the youth criminal justice act (talks about community programs as opposed to prison)  sent for small periods of time to punish, not for social support or rehabilitation o expansion of max security prisons in Canada o related to war on drugs and prison was a mechanism for targeting African Americans  two million people confined at any time in U.S. and more than half of African American likely to experience some sort of imprisonment in their life time  targeting and over policing crimes that were more likely to occur in African Americans in order to incarcerate them  drug laws set up to target certain groups (possession of cheaper drugs punished harsher than more expensive one; people of lower class more likely to be found in possession of cheaper drugs because that’s all they can afford)  Rise of victims’ rights o Earlier periods victim thought of as the forgotten player o Now image and projected interest of victim drive criminal policy o New legislation around victim impact statements, etc. driven by vi
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