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SOC316H5 (66)
Lecture 9

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Paula Maurutto

Lecture 9- March 22, 2013 Situational Crime Prevention • Recognizing that crime usually occurs in certain situations • Comprises opportunity-reducing measures that: • Involve management, design or manipulation of immediate environment • Reduce crime crates by protecting individuals from victimization • Make crime less attractive • Make crime more difficulty and risky, or less rewarding; focused on settings for crime than committing criminal acts • Rational choice model- weigh risks and benefits Reducing opportunity for crime • Directly- criminal opportunities can be reduced through management, design, or manipulation of immediate physical environment to enhance its safety and security o Window bars, entry screening, metal detectors, security cameras • Indirectly- criminal opportunities can be reduced through immediate human environment; influencing and/or organizing people to work toward deterring crime in particular locale o i.e. neighborhood watch, citizen patrols • much of crime is contextual and opportunistic; focuses on altering behaviour to reduce risks (i.e. alarm systems, locking doors) Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) • difference between situational crime prevention and CPTED is where they originate o UK- concept of situational crime prevention o US- concept of environmental design o Situational crime prevention a little broader (encompasses more mechanisms) • Often traced back to Jane Jacobs work and Oscar Newman (architect) who looked at arrangement of public housing spaces; design of public housing discouraged residents from taking responsibilities from public areas o Criticizes architectural developments of these spaces arguing it made it impossible to recognize strangers, locations of projects in high crime areas, unsupervised access points (easy to come in and leave after committing crime) o Association between social behaviour and immediate environment (houses, landscapes, parks, streets); how structure of environment affects crime • Situational approach that advocates certain designs and uses of built environment (houses, buildings, landscapes, streets, parks, and entire neighbourhoods) to reduce opportunity for crime • Done through formal and informal methods (similar to indirect and direct methods) o Formal- i.e. surveillance camera o Informal- changing how they use space, changing behavior SCP Theoretical Assumptions • Most criminal acts require convergence of motivated offenders and potential victims within an insufficiently guarded environment • Many types of crime (property crime specially) are opportunistic o Offenders take advantage of certain opportunities presented by physical space o i.e. residential thefts take place during day when people aren’t home while commercial thefts take place at night when no one is there • Criminals are rational in their decision-making process o Rational choice theory- offenders offending at certain time and place weigh benefits and costs of committing the crime (how likely they are to get caught or get away) Types of SCP reduction strategies • Can be classified into 3 type, those that: o Increase the effort  Making targets of crime harder to get at; making it difficult to commit crime o Increase the risks  Perception or real fact that you are likely to get caught o Reduce rewards of crime  Removing targets all together or making them less valuable Increasing Effort Increasing Risk Reducing Rewards (minimizing rewards that offender takes) Target Hardening Entry/Exit Screening Identifying Property • Dead bolt locks • Customs port of entry  Reduces value of something on • Locking gates  Checking bags for bottles at the black market • Window bars sporting events/concerts  Automobile VIN  Electronic merchandise tags  Marking your CDs with your name  Branding cattle Access Control Formal Surveillance Target Removal  Entry phones  Introducing/increasing  Removing the temptation/  ATM PIN opportunity to monitor taking away the product immediate environment  Removable car stereo  Security mirrors  Moving items to car trunk  CCTV  Placing cigarettes in locked  Security guards cabinets in a store  Neighbourhood Watch Deflecting Offenders Surveillance by Employees Reducing Temptation • Building rival high  Ind
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