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316Lecture2.docx - Welfare to Crime Control

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Zachary Levinsky

Welfare to Crime Control WELFARE TO CRIME CONTROL Test will be the same day but less material Need to start and understand Foucault’s perspective and what he’s trying to do in order to understand what Garland’s trying to do Foucault begins by telling an ordeal where punishment is inscribed on the body (Damien) Foucault and Questions of Method He’s asking the “how” questions, not saying whether something is good or bad…not whether prison is bad but rather how we ended up with it and using it. Garland is also doing this – control We take things for granted: assume prison is the way we do punishment, necessary way of doing things Asking how it came to be Problematization: how do certain things get talked about as problems, or we take for granted as a problem? School shooting: how has this changed to be viewed as a particular problem? De-Centering the subject History of the present: not history of great thinkers but rather history of systems of thought and how they change…not one or two people made this change happen, but look at other sources where this idea came from…Garland borrowed term condition of possibility: getting away from necessary things, why are certain things say-able or doable and why are laws in a particular way? De-Centering the Subject Garland p. 158 “that is not to say that the media has produced our interest in crime, or that it has produced the popular punitiveness that appears as such a strong political current today… my point is rather that the mass media has tapped into, then dramatized and reinforced a new public experience – an experience with profound psychological resonance”  we cannot blame the media; it has not produced our interest in crime; media is still important and is a resource and shows us how things have changed; things are going on at a lower level – bottom-up approach which account for philosophical shifts; don’t need to look at great thinkers but at lower level relationships and different areas of regulations to systems of thought and shifts in how we think History of the present Attention to the little shifts in our ways of thinking The small and contingent struggles, tensions and negotiations Changes are not immediate, occur gradually over time. Education is now results based. Teachers changing how they teach based on students not liking a particular way of learning Welfare to Crime Control Can learn more from everyday texts and practices Seem to be natural and the good thing to do and the right path What usually captivates us  the grand thinkers (Einstein) Not just themselves involved in change but rather conditions HoP and DeC-Subject  history of systems of thought “Often in our history, events, however major their ramifications, occur at the level of the molecular, the minor, the little and the mundane”  Adapted from Rose 1999 Schools are built in different ways, architects embed ways to prevent crime – changes occur on a molecular level Garland avoids naming names Shift is never neat or complete Modalities of power Marxism: ruling class needs lower class, power is a negative thing, zero sums Freud: power is about repression  what you are today is because of repression at earlier stages, negative understanding of power Foucault: idea of power is more productive  produces you in a particular way, power is not operating on you but rather through you, not everyone is on an equal terrain but those marginalized are not just repressed and passive but have some power to negotiate; last few years of his life tried to understand different forms of power – 4 types 1)Sovereignty: crime prevention operates on body, generally what we think of power in Marxism, power of two or more people over one people, we live in a cruel society and need somebody to control it -Hobbes’ Leviathan -Silly Dean’s Robes -Signifying someone has authority over others -R.v. Crown – somebody versus the Queen 2)Disciplinary: emergence of prison, see this power emerge in total institutions like prison and school, panopticon, never know if you are being watched so begin regulating own behavior and/or constantly comparing self to the normal (1) normalization: try to make ourselves normal -Use of schedules to train your mind and body and produce someone as a good student or citizen -Foucault: soul is prison of the body (reversed b/c normally think soul is imprisoned by body) b/c this power operates on soul to train your body to do things and fall in line -Correcting the person and conforming individuals – prisons Welfare to Crime Control -(2) Hierarchical position: somebody may or may not be watching you, someone at front of classroom -(3) Examination: having to complete exams to know where you sit, continual evaluating 3)Pastoral power: likened to shepherd who’s concerned about every member of the flock where if one sheep is in danger he will risk rest of flock to save one member, we don’t get this sense of sacrifice in sovereignty 4)Governmentality – the ‘conduct of conduct’  vague in what’s achieved and what means are used, but idea that something needs to be done and things fall into line with it  laws, public service campaigns such as in schools, etc. -With government it is a question of not imposing law on men, but of disposing things: that is to say, of employing tactics rather than laws, and even of using laws themselves as tactics – to arrange things in such a way that, through a certain number of means, such and such ends may be achieved…” (Foucault, Governmentality Lecture, 95). -Not clear what end is achieved. Welfarism and neoliberalism are both forms of governmentality  beneficial for everyone versus making your own choices. Laws are not only thing involved in crime prevention, strategies, things you do to make sure you are not a victim Governing beyond the state “But the dream or nightmare of society programmed, colonized or dominated by ‘the cold monster’ of the State is profoundly limiting as a way of rendering intelligible the way we are governed today” (Rose, 38) Big Brother metaphor restricting Not just state that governs, have to think how we are regulated beyond the state  1984; getting an education and sitting in this class is not forced upon you Disneyland: not just the state in conducting conduct. Embedded and consensual nature of governing How intensely are you governed and the mascots that are embedded don’t speak but are there as intelligence officers, video cameras are everywhere, garbage cans’ placements are regulated, where to take photos, cues  beyond state regulation Place where we want to be  actively participate in own governing due to this Surveillance: you actively trade your privacy for your own benefit  Netflix keeps track of your profile to see what you have watched and what you may perhaps like to watch You engage in these activities consensually and want to be regulated in particular ways Diverse sites [Library to Disneyland to the State] but start to see shifts in underlying logic Sites: work, school, mall, bus, library, state, Disneyland  see similar shifts occur in all sites, which tells us where Garland is coming from: shift from Welfarism to whatever form we are under now of governmentality Characteristics of Welfarism Welfare to Crime Control Social security – state taking care of you and aiding you if you are unemployed State is related to other institutions Correctionalism: emphasis on treatment and rehabilitation Emerge in 1900s with creation of juvenile courts & depression & much gov. involvement: emergence of parole and probation (new ways of doing punishment), idea that expert knowledge is key – both expert and democracy answer who can rule and why can they rule Reaction against corporal punishment: don’t have to severely punish the offender Disciplining and reforming offenders via programs in order to reintegrate them into society  idea that something wrong with person and can make them better just have to know what to do Youth savers: need to take idle youth off streets and make them productive Concept of deviance (straying from path, need to be corrected and brought onto right path)  CJS can be the answer to the problem of crime (state can cure criminality) Welfarism: A Particular ‘Governmentality’ “Welfarism [was] not so much a process in which a central State extended its tentacles throughout society, but the invention of various ‘rules for rule’ that sough to transform the State into a centre the could progra
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