SOC316H5 Lecture Notes - Nikolas Rose, White Southerners, Metanarrative

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Published on 10 Apr 2014
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Welfare to Crime Control
WELFARE TO CRIME CONTROL
Test will be the same day but less material
Need to start and understand Foucault’s perspective and what he’s trying to do in order to
understand what Garland’s trying to do
Foucault begins by telling an ordeal where punishment is inscribed on the body (Damien)
Foucault and Questions of Method
He’s asking the “how questions, not saying whether something is good or bad…not whether
prison is bad but rather how we ended up with it and using it. Garland is also doing this – control
We take things for granted: assume prison is the way we do punishment, necessary way of
doing things
Asking how it came to be
Problematization: how do certain things get talked about as problems, or we take for granted as
a problem?
School shooting: how has this changed to be viewed as a particular problem?
De-Centering the subject
History of the present: not history of great thinkers but rather history of systems of thought and
how they change…not one or two people made this change happen, but look at other sources
where this idea came from…Garland borrowed term condition of possibility: getting away from
necessary things, why are certain things say-able or doable and why are laws in a particular
way?
De-Centering the Subject
Garland p. 158 “that is not to say that the media has produced our interest in crime, or that it
has produced the popular punitiveness that appears as such a strong political current today…
my point is rather that the mass media has tapped into, then dramatized and reinforced a new
public experience – an experience with profound psychological resonance”
 we cannot blame the media; it has not produced our interest in crime; media is still important
and is a resource and shows us how things have changed; things are going on at a lower level –
bottom-up approach which account for philosophical shifts; don’t need to look at great thinkers
but at lower level relationships and different areas of regulations to systems of thought and
shifts in how we think
History of the present
Attention to the little shifts in our ways of thinking
The small and contingent struggles, tensions and negotiations
Changes are not immediate, occur gradually over time. Education is now results based.
Teachers changing how they teach based on students not liking a particular way of learning
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Welfare to Crime Control
Can learn more from everyday texts and practices
Seem to be natural and the good thing to do and the right path
What usually captivates us  the grand thinkers (Einstein)
Not just themselves involved in change but rather conditions
HoP and DeC-Subject  history of systems of thought
“Often in our history, events, however major their ramifications, occur at the level of the
molecular, the minor, the little and the mundane”  Adapted from Rose 1999
Schools are built in different ways, architects embed ways to prevent crime – changes occur on
a molecular level
Garland avoids naming names
Shift is never neat or complete
Modalities of power
Marxism: ruling class needs lower class, power is a negative thing, zero sums
Freud: power is about repression  what you are today is because of repression at earlier
stages, negative understanding of power
Foucault: idea of power is more productive  produces you in a particular way, power is not
operating on you but rather through you, not everyone is on an equal terrain but those
marginalized are not just repressed and passive but have some power to negotiate; last few
years of his life tried to understand different forms of power – 4 types
1)Sovereignty: crime prevention operates on body, generally what we think of power in Marxism,
power of two or more people over one people, we live in a cruel society and need somebody to
control it
-Hobbes’ Leviathan
-Silly Dean’s Robes
-Signifying someone has authority over others
-R.v. Crown – somebody versus the Queen
2)Disciplinary: emergence of prison, see this power emerge in total institutions like prison and
school, panopticon, never know if you are being watched so begin regulating own behavior
and/or constantly comparing self to the normal (1) normalization: try to make ourselves normal
-Use of schedules to train your mind and body and produce someone as a good student or
citizen
-Foucault: soul is prison of the body (reversed b/c normally think soul is imprisoned by body) b/c
this power operates on soul to train your body to do things and fall in line
-Correcting the person and conforming individuals – prisons
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Welfare to Crime Control
-(2) Hierarchical position: somebody may or may not be watching you, someone at front of
classroom
-(3) Examination: having to complete exams to know where you sit, continual evaluating
3)Pastoral power: likened to shepherd who’s concerned about every member of the flock where
if one sheep is in danger he will risk rest of flock to save one member, we don’t get this sense of
sacrifice in sovereignty
4)Governmentality – the ‘conduct of conduct’  vague in what’s achieved and what means are
used, but idea that something needs to be done and things fall into line with it  laws, public
service campaigns such as in schools, etc.
-With government it is a question of not imposing law on men, but of disposing things: that is to
say, of employing tactics rather than laws, and even of using laws themselves as tactics – to
arrange things in such a way that, through a certain number of means, such and such ends may
be achieved…” (Foucault, Governmentality Lecture, 95).
-Not clear what end is achieved. Welfarism and neoliberalism are both forms of governmentality
 beneficial for everyone versus making your own choices. Laws are not only thing involved in
crime prevention, strategies, things you do to make sure you are not a victim
Governing beyond the state
“But the dream or nightmare of society programmed, colonized or dominated by ‘the cold
monster’ of the State is profoundly limiting as a way of rendering intelligible the way we are
governed today” (Rose, 38)
Big Brother metaphor restricting
Not just state that governs, have to think how we are regulated beyond the state  1984; getting
an education and sitting in this class is not forced upon you
Disneyland: not just the state in conducting conduct. Embedded and consensual nature of
governing
How intensely are you governed and the mascots that are embedded don’t speak but are there
as intelligence officers, video cameras are everywhere, garbage cans’ placements are
regulated, where to take photos, cues  beyond state regulation
Place where we want to be  actively participate in own governing due to this
Surveillance: you actively trade your privacy for your own benefit  Netflix keeps track of your
profile to see what you have watched and what you may perhaps like to watch
You engage in these activities consensually and want to be regulated in particular ways
Diverse sites [Library to Disneyland to the State] but start to see shifts in underlying logic
Sites: work, school, mall, bus, library, state, Disneyland  see similar shifts occur in all sites,
which tells us where Garland is coming from: shift from Welfarism to whatever form we are
under now of governmentality
Characteristics of Welfarism
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Document Summary

Test will be the same day but less material. Need to start and understand foucault"s perspective and what he"s trying to do in order to understand what garland"s trying to do. Foucault begins by telling an ordeal where punishment is inscribed on the body (damien) He"s asking the how questions, not saying whether something is good or bad not whether prison is bad but rather how we ended up with it and using it. We take things for granted: assume prison is the way we do punishment, necessary way of doing things. Attention to the little shifts in our ways of thinking. The small and contingent struggles, tensions and negotiations. Changes are not immediate, occur gradually over time. Teachers changing how they teach based on students not liking a particular way of learning. Can learn more from everyday texts and practices. Seem to be natural and the good thing to do and the right path.

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