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316Lecture3.docx - Surveillance

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Zachary Levinsky

Surveillance Surveillance In the new world of surveillance, there is no need to justify any specific information, authority figures act based on suspicion and everyone is a potential terror – you are suspicious by not being suspicious. The theory is that if you have done nothing, then you have nothing to worry about. Security is about some future harm happening – this is at odds with CJS, which is concerned with what you did in the past and punishing you for it, perhaps deterring others. It is focused on what you did, not what you could do. Institutions on the other hand are wrapped up around your likelihood of doing something, not what you did. Surveillance is about being observed and watched, but it is also about collection of information/data. You are under surveillance, not just by cameras but your records: data that exists about you, which makes it easier for institutions to interact. For instance, your marks on ROSI make it easier for educational institutions to interact and determine whether to accept you or not. You contract you surveillance. Surveillance is thus a process of collection and production of information. The book 1984 by George Orwell is set in a dystopian world that is divided into three, which are at constant war with each other. One of these parts employs utilitarian, where there is constant surveillance of mostly upper and middle classes, while lower classes are separated from civil society and it doesn’t matter what they do. One character, Winston Smith, tries to think for himself, tries step out of the state, and tries to retain individuality. The thought police torture him to reintegrate him back into the conformed society. Eventually, he loses his dignity and submits to the state. Two metaphors – big brother is the first one  NSA, government is the big brother watching over you. Big Brother Metaphor Surveillance is used for conformity -maintains social order and makes sure you’re doing what you’re supposed to be doing Privacy key – loss of dignity -we understand privacy much like the character (in the book); lose privacy Centralized bureaucracy -able to appear at your home, on your laptop -state has the capability to do this -surveillance disrupts our personal dignity -surveillance expands beyond the state Second model of surveillance is the panopticon Surveillance Bentham’s Panopticon -Somebody in the center, from where you could be being watched -usually in the prison system -part of theory of power -More than just observation; production of knowledge – by observing criminal classes we develop the roots of criminology -trying to transform the prisoner: constant surveillance is supposed to help develop self-control so that can do it by self and don’t need Big Brother anymore to watch over -power is not coercive and could be productive (producing better citizens who self-regulate their actions) -metaphor extends to the rest of society – disciplinary institutions: school, military -how do you relate to others of what normal means -not just upper and middle classes, everyone is subject to constant evaluation and examination which begins to make people do this on their own -we need lower classes’ labour and monitor themselves (working hard, going to school and getting an education, doing well in school) so that capitalism can work Surveillance in the Panopticon: Surveillance is productive -he’s a hard worker, punctual Beyond the state -state is not here in the classroom, but is still important Leads to self-discipline -self-regulation; threat of being caught Accumulation of information -production of knowledge -have information about how students react -able to produce whole sciences, such as criminology Direct Supervision of Subordinates -see some elements of Big Brother here Normalization Surveillance -at first from outside maybe an authority figure telling you expectations, but eventually you’ll internalize -information you give to doctor is form of examining yourself -not all repressive and oppressive, but productive as well: you do things to make self feel better, and that you are a good citizen Surveillance Camera It hangs over Times Square, looking more like a street lamp than what it really is: a police video surveillance camera that can swivel 360 degrees and zoom in close enough to read a Broadway ticket in a scalper’s hand 50 feet away. Electronic You do not know if you are being watched, if they even work Technological development of computers Surveillant Assemblages Dispersed, decentralized, globalized -this is how surveillance is carried out -cannot look at monitor but if you are on Wi-Fi network, then can track it -not university that explicitly collects data About linking and pulling threads together -product of surveillance: gmail, utm mail accounts; cameras in schools, on buses -no central authority linking them together -some are more refined (cell phone records) than others -your preferences on Netflix Data Doubles (Ericson and Haggerty) - Abstracting bodies from places then - Reassembled as virtually (putting it in their surveillance system) - Which makes them easily compared to other systems - Example: ultrasound – once on screen, you can compare to other things that look normal or abnormal; marks on ROSI which can be compared to other people in class – does not tell how you got there Surveillance In this sense, surveillance is decentralized. No ultimate goal to produce conformity, although can be collected and used by central state and can make them work together (pull threads together). No stable entity, no fixed boundary. A lot of surveillance you undergo is for marketing -ads appearing on Facebook, your email = pulling threads together and using them for different purposes -cameras not only watch over people for crime but can be used for marketing purposes to see how population moves throughout day Difference with Panopticon Not necessarily about disciplining the body -preferential treatment, such Air Miles No ‘soul-training’ -panopticon: idea of docile subject; no distinct purpose although sometimes for marketing Relies on machines to record observations -no human will actually read your email, but all part of computer programs Focus on security -beyond worry about terrorism -profiles of marketing companies is on your future spending habits – what you may or may not do, what may or may not be useful to you -banks track financial transactions, funds, and accounts; you might get a call about if you are really making this purchase; we’re worried about money laundering so track money transfers; tracking down dads who don’t pay child support -NSA does not create email and the surveillance, but access these areas where you already agreed to surveillance – a lot of times we are okay with surveillance Constituting us as consumers -monitoring consumption patterns which can be used to sell you mor
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