SOC316H5 Lecture Notes - Substance Abuse, Crime Prevention, Informal Social Control

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Published on 10 Apr 2014
Community and Crime Prevention Outline
- What is community? We’re all part of a community in some sense, whether it’s spatial or
sociological & we do here it at UTM, in crime prevention, etc.
- Models of Community Crime Prevention
oSituational crime prevention – what does community mean in these programs?
- Premises of Community Crime Prevention
- Issues with community
- We’ll draw on theoretical perspectives we talked about previously in class
- Idea that there is a problem with youth  has been present since Socrates’ time
- City is a problem too
- Anecdotal evidence: people ‘feel’ it’s safer and that a program works now
- Community is a vague term and means different things to different crime prevention
What is community?
- Spatial? Where you live
oResidential neighborhoods
oUsed to grow up in smaller communities
- Sociological?
oTies/relations to others
oWhat are you involved in with others?
oWhat similar goals do you share with others?
oCommunity can be thought of as an organic unit of networks  sports related,
church, hobby related, etc.
oMay not be part of specific local sites, but when we think of community in crime
prevention strategies we think of it as geographical and spatial
- Assumption of crime prevention strategies
oLoss of the cohesive neighborhood contributed to disorder and crime
oSomehow we can locate crime and activate crime prevention
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- Sociological concept of community forms basis of distinct crime prevention philosophy
oIdea of community
o“Death of Social” – during the welfare era, society could be programmed (could
cure criminality and produce better citizens) and understood what worked and
didn’t; N. Rose suggest that communities become empowered and
responsibilized in crime prevention. Crime occurs in particular neighborhoods
and should focus on these neighborhoods
- The integration into a community is premised on socialization
oNorms and values – not shared by everyone from the same area though
oReinforcement of authority – authority structures/figures are required to be
looked up to by community
oDeveloping individual and collective consciousness
oSuccessful CP networks will foster these
There are 2 models which are very distinct approaches
1. Community Mobilization Model
- Mobilizing community members to reduce opportunities for crime
- Preventing the opportunity for crime
- Organizing local residents
- Generally keep eye out for suspicious things
- Assumes collective, active, and caring neighborhood will promote informal social control :
will begin to see each other, know schedules, and care about on another = activating
oIf they see something wrong happening or out of line, will do something about it
since they care
- Hence contribute to the prevention of crime and disorder
oNeighborhood Watch
oGet people in community to become vigilant about the community
2. Community Developmental Model
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- You cannot hope for people to get together and look out
- Need to develop community  economic factors, giving them resources
- Focuses on physical/socioeconomic development of neighborhood or at-risk group(s)
- In terms of physical environment, a lot communities are isolated from other places
oResources aren’t around
oTough to go from point A to B, especially if working 2 jobs
oTransportation issues
- ‘root causes’ of crime
oAddressing these and not just waiting around
- Main differences:
oCM more situational-focus reduce criminal opportunity
oCD address the causes and contributors of crime at the local level
More focused
Different neighborhoods have different issues
Address problems identified by community, which are not always crime
oWhichever strategy is used, something will happen & informal social control is a
bottom-up process allowing neighborhood to take things into their hands
oUse families, schools, other social institutions to activate
oStrong sense & good understanding of what community means
CCP – 4 factors
1. Community-Based Approach
a. Happening from bottom up, private citizen has a role to play  group them
together and it is the community who has a role to play
b. Idea need to encourage people and be proactive than just give resources
c. Community itself is the focus – what is the issue? How should it be addressed?
No longer thinking about social but communities. Think about biases in picking
out which communities have a problem
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