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316Lecture5.docx - Community and Crime Prevention

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Zachary Levinsky

Community and Crime Prevention Outline - What is community? We’re all part of a community in some sense, whether it’s spatial or sociological & we do here it at UTM, in crime prevention, etc. - Models of Community Crime Prevention o Situational crime prevention – what does community mean in these programs? - Premises of Community Crime Prevention - Issues with community - We’ll draw on theoretical perspectives we talked about previously in class - Idea that there is a problem with youth  has been present since Socrates’ time - City is a problem too - Anecdotal evidence: people ‘feel’ it’s safer and that a program works now - Community is a vague term and means different things to different crime prevention strategies What is community? - Spatial? Where you live o Residential neighborhoods o Used to grow up in smaller communities - Sociological? o Ties/relations to others o What are you involved in with others? o What similar goals do you share with others? o Community can be thought of as an organic unit of networks  sports related, church, hobby related, etc. o May not be part of specific local sites, but when we think of community in crime prevention strategies we think of it as geographical and spatial - Assumption of crime prevention strategies o Loss of the cohesive neighborhood contributed to disorder and crime o Somehow we can locate crime and activate crime prevention - Sociological concept of community forms basis of distinct crime prevention philosophy o Idea of community o “Death of Social” – during the welfare era, society could be programmed (could cure criminality and produce better citizens) and understood what worked and didn’t; N. Rose suggest that communities become empowered and responsibilized in crime prevention. Crime occurs in particular neighborhoods and should focus on these neighborhoods - The integration into a community is premised on socialization o Norms and values – not shared by everyone from the same area though o Reinforcement of authority – authority structures/figures are required to be looked up to by community o Developing individual and collective consciousness o Successful CP networks will foster these MODELS OF CPP There are 2 models which are very distinct approaches 1. Community Mobilization Model - Mobilizing community members to reduce opportunities for crime - Preventing the opportunity for crime - Organizing local residents - Generally keep eye out for suspicious things - Assumes collective, active, and caring neighborhood will promote informal social control: will begin to see each other, know schedules, and care about on another = activating networks o If they see something wrong happening or out of line, will do something about it since they care - Hence contribute to the prevention of crime and disorder o Neighborhood Watch o Get people in community to become vigilant about the community 2. Community Developmental Model - You cannot hope for people to get together and look out - Need to develop community  economic factors, giving them resources - Focuses on physical/socioeconomic development of neighborhood or at-risk group(s) - In terms of physical environment, a lot communities are isolated from other places o Resources aren’t around o Tough to go from point A to B, especially if working 2 jobs o Transportation issues - ‘root causes’ of crime o Addressing these and not just waiting around - Main differences: o CM more situational-focus reduce criminal opportunity o CD address the causes and contributors of crime at the local level  More focused  Different neighborhoods have different issues  Address problems identified by community, which are not always crime o Whichever strategy is used, something will happen & informal social control is a bottom-up process allowing neighborhood to take things into their hands o Use families, schools, other social institutions to activate o Strong sense & good understanding of what community means CCP – 4 factors 1. Community-Based Approach a. Happening from bottom up, private citizen has a role to play  group them together and it is the community who has a role to play b. Idea need to encourage people and be proactive than just give resources c. Community itself is the focus – what is the issue? How should it be addressed? No longer thinking about social but communities. Think about biases in picking out which communities have a problem d. Stepping back and allowing community to identify short term and long term issues, since members have a better understanding of the problems and allow them to address them e. Doing this with partnerships: bringing together a range of people from different sectors. Who is actually activated – one thing to say and another to get it done? Which sectors are being drawn on? Community is identifying needs AND who can help solve these issues f. Issues may develop in fractured communities: different solutions, opinions, voices… tough to get whole community on board g. Programs need to be community based with a caring community involved 2. Collective Action a. Act jointly to undertake CP activates unable to accomplish on their own b. Cannot engage in CP by ourselves; need fellow neighbors/residents c. Things that we cannot accomplish alone, we can accomplish within a community – idea that there is strength in numbers d. More people means more things brought to table: backgrounds, skills, solutions e. Begin to see shift in community when people create a bubble around themselves and do not interact, and no one is looking out for one another  informal networks will help rather than you being by yourself 3. Behavioral Reinforcement/Modification a. Not just offenders, but victims & community members b. Leaving porch/garage lights on so others can see c. Having a gate around the house and locking it; locking doors; shoveling walkways d. Educating people: what time is your house most likely to broken into? How can we alleviate that? e. Reinforcing good behaviors AND producing/strengthening a social environment that can informally regulate itself: able to tell when someone or something is out of line and correcting it f. Notion that we need to rebuild values in our communities g. If you have strong values you can regulate yourself and point out people who cannot and help them out h. Crime assumed to flourish where shallow roots, where people don’t interact, don’t develop shared values, community is not cohesive i. People are just coming and going – transitional: so approval of neighbor is not necessary, don’t see them j. Somehow not cleaning up litter, vandalism, letting weeds growing, etc. do not develop strong sense of community = no one car
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