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SOC316H5 (66)


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University of Toronto Mississauga
Zachary Levinsky

OUTLINE: SCP wrap-up, CPTED, Critiques of SCP/CTED (general, Parnaby, Clarke rebuttals), Gated communities - Not necessarily thinking about SCP, but about unintended consequences that may arise – think about this in your essay - Dropping week on Schools: won’t need to do readings for it & will not be tested on it - Will do Policing then Terrorism - Essay due last class (week after next), 2% bonus if hand in next week  submit online & hardcopy - Be detailed as possible in your essay; not talking about grant, but about what plan should be implemented – want to get rid of prison and this is how we’re going to do it - If you are focusing on one thing such as prostitution, at least let the reader know you have thought about the other issues Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) - Jane Jacobs (1961) book entitled The Death and Life of GreatAmerican Cities - Oscar Newman book Defensible Space: Crime Prevention Through Urban Design (1972) - Idea that cities just emerge and evolve; particularly on NY; how cities prevent crime - Talking about defensible space, from 70s in response to 60s (an architect) - Newman: design of public housing discouraged taking responsibility - And we have instincts to exclude predatory offenders – we know people who do not belong (strong communities) - Now, partly because of the large scale buildings  residents cannot recognize strangers, so don’t know who belongs or not - Brief article on this will be attached with ppt - Also projects (aka public housing) in high crime areas: where people did not want to live - And there are unsupervised access points - And finally their (public housing) stark appearance is stigmatizing - Newman is talking about a relationship between social behavior and immediate environment (the way buildings have been built) - You can design built environment to reduce opportunity for crime – design out crime - Directly modify the environment: see redesigning when renovations happen at UTM - Indirectly: can influence/encourage local residents to use green or public space in order to provide surveillance – maximizing surveillance so that it can be identified who belongs and who does not Elements of Defensible Space 1. Territoriality a. Fostering a sense of ownership in the area b. So that community will act when something is out of place 2. Natural surveillance a. Create communities and buildings that foster this b. Quote by Newman: “Capacity of physical design to provide surveillance opportunities for residents and their agents” c. New areas in UTM are open and have glass walls now, nothing is closed off completely allowing natural surveillance to happen 3. Image a. Want people to care about the area and make it look good b. Neighborhood appearing uncared for or isolated is problematic – becomes possible hotbed c. Projects look isolated b/c so ugly; area encourages crime d. Instill pride in residents (so cannot have ugly buildings) 4. Milieu a. Placement of new buildings in a larger area characterized by low crime rates and high surveillance b. High crime areas are not beneficial to new communities Goals of CPTED 1. Access control a. Inhibit the access of “illegitimate users” b. Locked doors 2. Surveillance a. Access control is related to this 3. Activity support a. Enhance interactions between citizens and legitimate users b. Sense of territory/community; somehow you can build spaces to foster this c. Want spaces to be used by people who live there b/c aid in spotting people who do not belong and instilling pride 4. Motivation reinforcement a. Enhance feelings of territoriality and social cohesion b. Make people care about and talk to neighbors through architecture c. Building pride into a neighborhood/area What is the distinction between CPTED and SCP? - Seems CPTED is more large scale than SCP; more people need to be activated and resources, but goals are same (overlap); SCP is focused on a narrow aspect - Series of pictures will be a separate file - Putting a laundry room near the front - Idea of making things look clean, kept for and cared for - Inhibiting site lines thru barriers such as fountains, fences - Fences also create an entrapment stops so not always a good thing - Barbed wire = negative connotation so inhibits you from living there - Closing off alley way at night but also creates entrapment area - Gaps in streets encourage people to come out to prevent assault; assault sites - Bus shelters are more open b/c prevent assault from happening and stopping homeless from sleeping there - Fence around bridge to prevent people from throwing things to traffic below (looks ugly; using art as barrier more effective) - Parking lots are not closed off; offices there so people can see what is going on - Vendors provide surveillance as well - Mixing space: mixing usage creates multiple there for different reasons - Waiting area: more cameras here - Underground parking lot - Having codes to remember where you parked your car - Increasing legitimate users of parking space: bicyclists - Community garden to clean up idle use and kicking out illegitimate users - Assumes surveillance will prevent crime, but bystander effects could result in people thinking others would act and consequently no one ends up acting - Schools are very protected, but look ugly - Park too far from apartment and an open field vs. park close to residential areas - Carts: not just about stealing but image as well - Little reminders for SCP - New gates prevent people who do not belong from entering - CCTV camera near shipping and docking area where trucks tend to park = entrapment area - Shelter is opened and seats are made so homeless people cannot sleep here - Street cars have cameras at front - Garbage cans are redesigned; cannot put posters on it & cannot dump own garbage inside due to smaller holes - Pathways in green spaces so people don’t cut across; rocks also used - Not always about crime prevention but influencing behavior - Access through t-cards; library security systems; design spaces so people who are there more often can watch although not really their job - Fences in corners to prevent people from engaging in inappropriate behavior - Daily life is going thru SCP strategies - Open concept of new bathrooms instead of doors; stall doors are not too low so you can see under a bit - New sociology department: brighter and glass windows so welcoming - Old: stark and ugly, no windows on doors so no one can tell if people who do not belong are there or not What are some critiques of SCP/CPTED? 1. Does not address the Root Causes 2. Does not prevent crime – merely displaces it; neighborhoods where prostitution is a problem and punishing the johns isn’t good enough – prostitutes can move elsewhere 3. Offender as a rational thinker? Not in all types of crime are people rational although assume there is level of rationality in all types 4. SCP and CPTED oversimplifies relationship between the physical environment and human behavior – really simplifying what human behavior means; cannot foster something so complex a. Reasons why casinos don’t have windows or clocks b. Why shops have produce
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