Class Notes (808,494)
Canada (493,253)
Sociology (3,987)
SOC316H5 (66)

316Lecture9.docx - Policing

10 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Zachary Levinsky

The police – definition, private & community Policing in relation to CP. Why is there a rise in private policing? Some things to think about - Is this always about crime or ‘incivilities’? Broken windows suggest incivilities lead to crime. Should this matter and why? - Wacquant – constructing ‘disorderly’ (in terms of appearance, visible on the streets) and desirables as dangerous. We always assume that criminals are dangerous, so already have a split between us and criminals and now begin to group incivilities in the same way - Fear of crime consistent change. Might be positive. If you make students wear uniforms, cannot tell who is in gang (baggy clothing, gang colors) and perceive school as safer. Students don’t need this; they know who’s in a gang. Perception is tangible; it reduces fear of crime not crime. o But fear of being victimized linked to things not actually criminal o Linked to feeling safe o Feel afraid of being victimized in certain spaces b/c seems inevitable in CP strategies o Squeegeers, homeless people, idle youth o Why don’t we provide permits? Why are the few who engage in risky behavior the basis for acts? o Problem of visibility? Incivilities tend to be about visibility & we’ve learned to associate this with fear Traditional policing - Crime control approach o Cracking down on crime, toughening up on crime o Linked to idea of deterrence o If you have a strong visible police force, you can deter crime - Incident oriented o Responds to specific incidents o Something happens, call the cops, they show up - Response oriented o Waiting for incident to happen, waiting to be called, not being proactive o Little resourves directed to prevention - Limited information gathering o Focus on particular incident o Don’t look at broader analysis in cause of events o Reactive approach - Centralized police services – hierarchical o Military like: report to those superior to them o Rigid hierarchy o Have to follow chain of command - Shift rotation o Not necessarily assigned to a particular neighborhood o Focused on looking for bad things happening o Deployment - Police as experts o Of crime control o Go to them if questions about crime, gangs, etc. o They know about crime and can solve a crime What do the police do? - The answer to what policing is what they do (definition) - So what do they do? - Shearing: o Maintenance of order & guarantee security o Does not say anything about fighting crime o Policing  imagining how to achieve safety in the future o Not about punishing the past or fighting ‘crime’ (not catching criminals in the act; that is not what they do) o Public/media dramatization of police as officers who fight crime is not really what they do – not what they engage in daily; maintain order o Citizen information most important to secure arrest: police are not actively arresting people, they have witnesses who call them into it SO having more police on the streets does not increase crime solving and safety which depend on witness information - Most of police work: o Patrol, traffic regulation o Paper work and filling out forms - Ericson – Policing the Risk Society o Idea of defensible decisions o Police engage in paper work to document what they’ve done and make it defensible - Canada: o Officer records one indictable occurrence a week o One indictable crime arrest every three weeks o One indictable conviction every 9m - In NYC: 156 patrol officers in a high crime area o 40% did not make a felony arrest in a year o 69% made no more than three felony arrests o Image of catching criminals is not made out by the data and is not what they are doing Policing the risk society - Ericson - Ericson suggests patrol officers do more ‘knowledge work’ - 39% of all assignments were administrative matters – documenting evidence collected, interviews, filling out forms - For 50% of their time - When you get into an accident, police fill out forms for insurance companies - A lot of the forms they fill out are not just for the police alone but for other entities - Even detectives, who we think are engaged in problem or crime solving o 10% of time was spent on direct criminal investigation o Spend 50% of their time in the office o More time devoted to recording investigative activities than investigative work o Other 40% may be documenting going from point A to B, meetings with other officers and going over strategies, going to court, conducting interviews, etc. What definition of policing would you advance? What is ‘policing’? Working definition of policing - Here we see why private policing matters, such as a security guard in a mall - Broader expansive definition of policing - Policing is not just what the police do - Private entities are engaged as well - Key is they are acting legally - Police had monopoly on legitimate use of force - CCC s494 2b allows security guards the power to arrest but must deliver to a police officer (3) - TPA also activates private police officer - 90s in terms of numbers, private police outnumbered the public police Why the Rise in Private Police? - Not to suggest it didn’t exist b/c it has for a long time 1. Mass Private Property Thesis (Shearing and Stenning) a. Urban spaces increasingly became private b. At one point the city center was a public space, but in 80s and 90s this shifted to shopping malls = private space c. Downtown Toronto was where Eaton Centre was d. Bubbles of Governance – neo-feudal spaces e. Increasingly what we think as public are occurring in private spaces and now under the control of private corps from state control (quote) f. We know what public police conduct occurs and the issues which arise. What about private police? 2. The fiscal crisis of the state (Spitzer) a. Welfare state too costly (shift) b. Idea that state could solve crime thru CJS, which was simply too expensive c. State stepping allows services (private entities) to fill the void or contract out to private industries 3. Consumptionism/consumer culture (Loader) a. Modification of security b. We consume things whether entertainment, education, or security – something you could buy c. We are a consumer culture d. Almost an illusion to own security e. We consume security f. We increasingly demand better products g. Increasingly demand newer technologies to secure people/things h. We something goes wrong, demand for better i. Plane disappearance = demand for something to happen j. DNA child ID kit 4. Trends in governance (Garland) a. Part of shift to neo-liberalism b. State getting out of things c. Activate individuals as responsible for their pawn safety because there are limits to the sovereign state, which cannot solve crime d. Doesn’t
More Less

Related notes for SOC316H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.