SOC316H5 Lecture Notes - Shoplifting, Complex Network, Customer Satisfaction

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Published on 10 Apr 2014
School
Department
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The police – definition, private & community
Policing in relation to CP. Why is there a rise in private policing?
Some things to think about
- Is this always about crime or ‘incivilities’? Broken windows suggest incivilities lead to
crime. Should this matter and why?
- Wacquant – constructing ‘disorderly’ (in terms of appearance, visible on the streets) and
desirables as dangerous. We always assume that criminals are dangerous, so already
have a split between us and criminals and now begin to group incivilities in the same
way
- Fear of crime consistent change. Might be positive. If you make students wear uniforms,
cannot tell who is in gang (baggy clothing, gang colors) and perceive school as safer.
Students don’t need this; they know who’s in a gang. Perception is tangible; it reduces
fear of crime not crime.
oBut fear of being victimized linked to things not actually criminal
oLinked to feeling safe
oFeel afraid of being victimized in certain spaces b/c seems inevitable in CP
strategies
oSqueegeers, homeless people, idle youth
oWhy don’t we provide permits? Why are the few who engage in risky behavior
the basis for acts?
oProblem of visibility? Incivilities tend to be about visibility & we’ve learned to
associate this with fear
Traditional policing
- Crime control approach
oCracking down on crime, toughening up on crime
oLinked to idea of deterrence
oIf you have a strong visible police force, you can deter crime
- Incident oriented
oResponds to specific incidents
oSomething happens, call the cops, they show up
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- Response oriented
oWaiting for incident to happen, waiting to be called, not being proactive
oLittle resourves directed to prevention
- Limited information gathering
oFocus on particular incident
oDon’t look at broader analysis in cause of events
oReactive approach
- Centralized police services – hierarchical
oMilitary like: report to those superior to them
oRigid hierarchy
oHave to follow chain of command
- Shift rotation
oNot necessarily assigned to a particular neighborhood
oFocused on looking for bad things happening
oDeployment
- Police as experts
oOf crime control
oGo to them if questions about crime, gangs, etc.
oThey know about crime and can solve a crime
What do the police do?
- The answer to what policing is what they do (definition)
- So what do they do?
- Shearing:
oMaintenance of order & guarantee security
oDoes not say anything about fighting crime
oPolicing  imagining how to achieve safety in the future
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oNot about punishing the past or fighting ‘crime’ (not catching criminals in the act;
that is not what they do)
oPublic/media dramatization of police as officers who fight crime is not really what
they do – not what they engage in daily; maintain order
oCitizen information most important to secure arrest: police are not actively
arresting people, they have witnesses who call them into it SO having more
police on the streets does not increase crime solving and safety which depend on
witness information
- Most of police work:
oPatrol, traffic regulation
oPaper work and filling out forms
- Ericson – Policing the Risk Society
oIdea of defensible decisions
oPolice engage in paper work to document what they’ve done and make it
defensible
- Canada:
oOfficer records one indictable occurrence a week
oOne indictable crime arrest every three weeks
oOne indictable conviction every 9m
- In NYC: 156 patrol officers in a high crime area
o40% did not make a felony arrest in a year
o69% made no more than three felony arrests
oImage of catching criminals is not made out by the data and is not what they are
doing
Policing the risk society - Ericson
- Ericson suggests patrol officers do more ‘knowledge work’
- 39% of all assignments were administrative matters – documenting evidence collected,
interviews, filling out forms
- For 50% of their time
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Document Summary

Wacquant constructing disorderly" (in terms of appearance, visible on the streets) and desirables as dangerous. We always assume that criminals are dangerous, so already have a split between us and criminals and now begin to group incivilities in the same way. If you make students wear uniforms, cannot tell who is in gang (baggy clothing, gang colors) and perceive school as safer. Students don"t need this; they know who"s in a gang. Incivilities tend to be about visibility & we"ve learned to associate this with fear. Crime control approach: cracking down on crime, toughening up on crime, linked to idea of deterrence, if you have a strong visible police force, you can deter crime. Incident oriented: responds to specific incidents, something happens, call the cops, they show up. Response oriented: waiting for incident to happen, waiting to be called, not being proactive, little resourves directed to prevention.

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