Crime Control Measures
- What has happened in the wake of 9/11?
- In terms of the US and Canada, saw harmonization of immigration policies
o Even little things, like need passports to travel across borders now
- Increased military expenditures
o Does this mean more weapons? More personnel?
o Financial transaction reports analysis center
o b/c strange transactions have happened before terrorist attacks
o red flagging these
- Armed marshals
- Tougher airport security
- Bio tech screening:
o Privacy rights? Religious rights?
o Many things become activated when you book a flight
o If you don’t like this type of security for the airline or the over-policing in a city
then do not use it or move
o If you didn’t do anything, you have nothing to worry about
- More scrutiny of security personnel
o Background checks
o More extensive collection of employees’’ background
- Video monitors in cockpit
o Need more surveillance cameras
o Always sort of response we have when incidents occur
- Authority to shoot down civilian planes is now given to generals in case president cannot
o Post 9/11 b/c before understood hijackers would want something in exchange o But in 9/11 they didn’t want anything in exchange
- Patriot Act; a lot of this hinged on Preventative detention; Anti-terrorism bill
Patriot Act (USA) & Anti-Terrorism Bill (Canada)
- Sovereign state and problem of national security
- We still have some responsibility
- Still being activated in certain ways
- Noticing if someone leaves bag unattended
- But still look for state to solve problems b/c it has resources
- Unprecedented surveillance measures and police powers
- Need to give up rights to gain prevention
- Police could arrest a suspect without warrant
- Need to give government and police powers in exchange for our safety and own good
- Detain them for up to 3 days without laying a charge
- More time to gather information about them and from them maybe
- The suspicion of potential terrorist act is enough
- Had not engaged in anything illegal, but suspicion was enough
- Suspicion became defining characteristic of the bill
- People who interact with suspected persons also become suspected, leading to a
network of suspicion
- Sweeping powers to listen to Canadian telephone conversations
- What is a valid security purposes?
o What does Valverde suggest in the readings?
o Does she want you to take up her view of security as an expert? Why? Why not?
o Why do we think of security and rights as a trade off
o Why does she think of herself as a security expert and not want to be considered
o It is the locals who need to deal with these types of questions - Suspicion became the legislative standard
- Does this violate the basic tenants of Canadian Law?
o Better to let 100 guilty people go free…
o Reasonable probable ground?
o It’s really murky what it means with being suspected of terrorism
o Racial profiling is a problem – certain people will be more targeted
- Should we be arresting people on fear they may commit an offence?
o Goes back to preventative detention that happened during G20
o Wanted to prevent riots although still happened
- Ethnic groups ARE targeted
o Particularly Asians
o Blacks, typically young males driving nice cars, were pulled over
- Innocent people being branded as national threats
- A US Gallup poll post 9/11:
o 585% backed intensive security checks for Arabs (even if US citizens)
o 49% favoured special identification cards for those of Arab Descent
o 32% ‘special surveillance’ upon them
o We’re okay with it b/c it won’t be us
- Little changed in 2005
o Saw similar numbers 4 years later
o 53% intensive security checks including US citizens before boarding
o 46% those of Arab descent should carry special ID cards
- There was a sunset clause
o Many of the preventative arrest and detention measures lapsed
o Vote in parliament was 159-124 [Feb. 27, 2007] – very narrow vote - Question of being problematic and going far? Not for conservatives b/c white middle
class would not be targeted by this
How does Stein change the metaphor for ‘war’?
- Imply different tactics need to be done in a ‘network war’
- Terrorist networks typicall