SOC316H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Ideal Type, Buzzword, Hardware Random Number Generator

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Published on 10 Dec 2014
School
Department
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COMMUNITY POLICING (LECTURE 8)
COMMUNITY POLICING
Community policing is a crime prevention model part of law enforcement
Community policing has become buzzword – much research has now become devoted to
community policing – community policing is not a mute concept dates back to 30’s – originally
associated with penal type welfare
Operates according to different logic and perspectives
Different structures then in the past
In the 50’s and 60’s community policing was cast in the model of the welfare state
Crime Prevention Models
Historical Overview
Definition
Central Features
Contrast Traditional/Community Policing
Impact of Community Policing
Examples
Limitations
Video – To a Different Beat- police are trying to build trust in the community – they
need to increase accountability and transparency of activity – need to have cultural
sensitivity –
In this film, three major municipal police forces in Canada, United Kingdom and The
United States are featured with the serious problems faced they faced in their operations
and their solutions. Running through each is the emphasis on community policing that
deemphasizes the violent confrontational approach to the citizenry and back to the
sense of being a more cooperative and mutually supportive element to society.
Gives a sense of the ideal type of community policing
Police why we have it and role in different things—use media to try to convey concepts –
video talks about conflict – there are ideals of what community policing is – conflation
idea of community policing and broken windows approach- there is a redirection of
policing – ega California and New York getting military tactical training police officers
increasingly being trained to take people down there is conflicting ideas
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Conflation of ideas of community policing and broken windows approach- I dos of what
community policing is – intensive redirection of policing in tactical measures – from NY
California – popos are increasingly being trained to take ppl down at the same time
community policing going ont
Survey done in about 100 countries asked – which model broken windows or community
policing – more democratic countries tend to use more of a community policing model-
which means diff things in diff context- eg Edmonton where police are really trying to
work with communities and be in conjunction with them- other times community polices –
interwinted with more tactival approach eg foot patrols could be operated in differ way
depends on how ie cracking down on community or being used to help with relationships
- Ideal type but on ground operates in many different ways
Crime Prevention Models
Crime Prevention through Social Development
Famous image of community policing in 50’s and 60’s often referred to relationships that
often emerges between police and social welfare agencies
Limited in scope – foot patrols date back to this time or earlier – police were expected to
counsel and give advice to youth and families
Earlier models community policing tended to be top down no sense that police had to
engage in partnerships and linkages with community – just talk to neighbors gather info
so that you know the neighbours communicate with them
Police your friend you go to for help
Situational Crime Prevention
Crime Prevention through Law Enforcement-traditional model
Penal welfare to crime control – real shift 70’s and 80’sd also 90’s
Movement away of treating offenders with social welfare model
Law enforcement tended to take on increasingly top down law and order approach
We see policing taking on more military approaches (get tough)– instead of being taught
on how to engage with individuals in the community but take down approach how do you
take =down individuals on that site – increased use of carding stopping individuals – this
really destabilized community relations with police – police are increasingly seen as
distrustful
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Transition the way policing operated – moved from walking on feet to patrolling in
vehicles – became less visible on street
You don’t trust them don’t go for them for help
Sense that the police are out of touch and far removed from the interests of the public –
sense that they are removed from public and disinterested in publics needs and
concerns – fundamental separation from police and community – police brutality – sense
not in touch with community –police are concerned with the hostile approach of police
with communities – 1974 first task force of policing in community
Task force reported that there was a widening gap between police and community
Police reliance on dispatch centers radios controls center – perception that police were
out of touch with community – showed that Ontario police heavily influenced by military
training –concern that organizational structure of police and services top down model of
management centralized model of command and control is what it was – may be
effective in crisis situations but for everyday not the way police should be structured –
task force examined the effectiveness of police strategies – generated great concern
with strategies – traditional top down militaristic approaches – now police are looking for
what alternative ways we can do policing this is where community policing arises
Militarized approach use of tazer guns
People are not happy with such an approach – there was criticism with militarized
approaches – race riots use of excessive force (police became concerned about their
public image – had to change way of conduction policing
Study in 1974 examined the impact of technology on policing in Ontario – there was a
widening gap between the community and police
Reduced contact (ie patrolling in cruisers as opposed to foot patrols
Ontario police embracing military practives organization of policing and management of
police services based on centralized top-down structure (police officers just responded
to what they were told to do
Police officers are the professional who have the sole responsibility for crime control
Officers respond to calls that involve criminal incidients – ie responding to 911 call
(reactive as opposed to proactive) their job was primarily to deal with a crime after it
occurred
The role of officers is to control crime and enforce the law – police no longer in touch
with public
Police services are centralized – centralized bureaucracy at the the top- top down model
Moved from one neighbourhood to another under command
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