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Lecture 2

Lecture 2.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Nicole Myers

Lecture 2 - Understanding Law: A review of theoretical frameworks Term Paper: topic = anything following week of Charter Talk aboutimpactson rightsanddiscussionsin Canada Challengesandconflictsoftworights How ismoralityregulatedandwhatis thelaw’srolein it?How havewe shiftedin talking aboutthe issue? Argumentson basisofevidence andresearchnotpersonalopinion Whattheorywasemployedalong thisissue? Doesyour topicbring up issuesaroundcertain theories Media–how hasitimpactedtheregulation oftheissue Isthecourt the rightpeople todecide tostrike down alaw?Have notbeen electedor popular Issuesexistedbefore Charter how hasitchangedthe issue? Discussion atend:have unintendedconsequencescomefromlegislation? - Abortion:ifwomen’srightswere successful,how didhomosexualspullon theirargumentsto gain their rights? Look atreadingsfor theweek ofyourtopic Willbe gradedon how youintegratesources Nolong description oftopicin intro R. v. Latimer Highlypublicizedeuthanasiacasein Canadian history 1993:placedhis12yeardaughter Tracyin car,whereshewassuffocatedanddied(tailpipe) Couldn’twalk ortalk,severe cerebraldamage toldpolice hisprimarygoalwastorelieve her ofpain Chargedwith 1 degreebypolice; convictedof2 in court:sentencedtolifewith no parole for 10years Lostfirstappealofprovincialcourt,andthen appealedtoSupremeCndrtwhoorderedanew trialb/c allegationsofCrown tamperingw/jury foundguiltyagain of2 degree murder Defensecounselarguedpunishmentwascruel andunusualb/cthiswasamercykilling (lovedhis daughter)& askedfor constitutionalexemption –judgeshouldbe allowedtoimpose alesser sentence Sentencing judgedidfind10yearstoopunitive sosentencedto2yearslessaday Crown arguesagainst& SupremeCourt founddespitecircumstances& MMS (10years)wasnottoo cruelandpunitive b/ckilling Tracywasnotnecessary–originalsentence imposed Nov.2012wasreleasedonparole –subjecttosupervision for lifethough Whatdoesthismean?Affirmation fromhigh courtthateuthanasiaisillegalandis murder,despite groundsfor justificationsofactions(mercykilling),butsentence isnottooharsh Consider:iseuthanasiasomething wewantandwhy?Andwhydowe notwanttoopen the doortoit? Theories of Law and Society Classical Sociological Theory Classical Legal Theory Contemporary Law & Society Theory Durkheim NaturalLaw FeministLegalTheory Marx LegalPositivism CriticalLegalTheory Weber LegalRealism CriticalRace LegalTheory How would the different perspectives explain the relationship between society and law? Eachperspectivebringsindifferentideasaroundwhomakeslaw,poweroflaw,etc. Classical Legal Theories of Law Natural Law Theory (Naturalism) Beliefin ahigher system:Beliefin aGod,higher power/supernaturalpower thatdictatesmoralorder of theworldwhichlaw ofhumansmustreflect Law shouldreflectthis‘naturalmoralorder’ Link between law andmorality Moralityisnotasubjectivething –itisclearcutwhatisrightandwhatiswrong &everyone should know this Rationalreasoning shouldleadyou tothisconclusion Human law then confirmsandconformsaroundmorality;anylaw that doesnotisunjustandshouldnot be enforced Law isessentiallygroundedin a‘naturalmoralorder’ Natural Law Theory (Naturalism) • Objectivemoralprinciples • Can be discoveredbynaturalreason • Ordinaryhuman law isonlylaw toextentconforms tothis • ‘anunjustlaw isnolaw atall’(SaintAugustine) • “Thislaw ofnatureisdictatedbyGodhimself, andassuch,issuperior in obligation toany other. Itisbinding overalltheglobe,in allcountries,andin atalltimes:nohuman lawsareof anyvalidity,ifcontrarytonaturallaw” –WilliamBlackstone Core of naturalism 1) There can be nolegallyvalidstandardsthat conflictwith thenaturallaw 2)Allvalidlawsderive whatforceandauthoritytheyhave fromnaturallaw Aquinas - Christian philosopher - Association betweennaturallaw andthelaw ofGod - Naturallaw ispartofeternallaw ofGod(thereason ofdivine wisdom)thatisknowable by meansofpowersofreason - Unjustandunreasonable law isaperversion oflaw andnature - TimeofPlato,Socrates,etc. - Universe wasgovernedbyimmutable lawssetbyGod(s) anditworkedthe wayitdidb/cthe God(s) made itso Grotius th - 17 centuryDutchjurist; After renaissance - Humansbynaturearenotonlyreasonable,butsocial - Humansare rational,relational,andsocialbeings - Rulesthat are‘natural’aredictatedbyreason alone andenable harmoniousliving - Live in harmonyb/cwe allrecognize thesame overallprinciples - Fromthisargument,Grotiusdevelopedthefirstcomprehensive theoryofinternationallaw Locke - Human beingsin thestate ofnature arefree andequal,yetinsecurein theirfreedom o Naturalrightsareintrinsic - When humansentersocietytheysurrenderonlysuchrightsasarenecessaryfortheir security andfor thecommon good - Naturallaw reflectsthe‘common good’ - Weareallequalbutwhen we come togetherasasociety/comm.Thenwe have togive upsome oftheserightssuchasrightsoffreedomtoachievealevelofsafetyandsecuritywhichisfor thecommon good (collection ofpeople,nolonger aboutindividual) Link to Western Legal Systems Naturalrights(philosophical)were basisfor theAmerican andFrench revolutions Naturallaw began torelylesson theological(God) andshiftedfocus:emphasize reason Notion of‘inalienable rightsUSA:ThomasJeffersonusednaturalrights –righttolife,libertyand pursuitofhappiness th th Demiseandresurgence:19 centurybegan toloseitsinfluence BUT 20 resurgence in referring to ideasaroundN.L.–totalitarian countries& human rightswhichareuniversal(U.N.) Rightsshouldnotdependon where youlive, whattime period,andwhatgovernmentisin power Definition of Natural Law - unwritten law’ - Reflection ofmoralor Divine law - Samefor everyone,everywhere - Bodyofmoralprinciples,recognizedbyreason - ‘dogoodandavoidevil’ - Conceptofuniversalmoralprinciples Summary - Notmade byhuman beings - These lawsexistb/cpeoplecommonlyagree - Basedon the structure ofrealityitself - Itisthe
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