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Soc323 lect 6

5 Pages

Course Code
Zachary Levinsky

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Lecture 6 2014­04­05 Outline:  A short history of Blacks in Canada Black Canadians as victims of crime   Common depictions of Black criminality  Black Canadians as Offenders  Perceptions of criminal injustice  Black Canadians and criminal justice outcomes  Black Canadians as service providers  Conclusions Objectives:  • Provide historical context for understanding race and crime in Canada • Develop understanding of link between marginalization and criminal justice • Examine black over representation in various sectors of the Canadian CJS Blacks in Canada: • Migration history o Black slaves and runaways o Black loyalists Canadian becomes a destination after American  Black loyalists come from the States to join with the British to fight, they would receive grants and so forth when fighting  America. o Immigration from the US o 1967 immigration reforms o Shift from Caribbean to Continental • Contemporary demographics of Black Canadians: o Black immigration has produced an immensely heterogeneous population o Loo points out: race does not make common interest  They have different religions and customs   We know that education is Eurocentric   Who will be excluded from black­only education  • Population currently sits at around 3/4 of a million • Large regional differences • Census data include o Canada’s black population is significantly younger than the overall population; o Black people—especially black males—have a higher rate of unemployment and lower personal incomes than  the national average o Black children are more likely to live in lone­parent families than other families o 55% of blacks are foreign born • Institutionalized discrimination o Slavery—white elitism  o Black at a significant disadvantage  o Free Blacks treated with disdain—segregation, restrictions on property ownership and restrictions on entry o Colonial legacy & continued discrimination—Canadians’ attitudes, presence of hate groups, bias in education,  housing o Relative achievement in school • Black Canadians as Victims of Crime o Lack of race­based statistics inherent difficulties o We do not release them because it marginalizes them o Gartner and Thompson (2004) o Toronto Star Data (2008)  Homicide victims are largely amoung the black people  44 of 133 victims were African Canadian are Victims  African Canadian men only take 4% of the population o Toronto Youth Crime and Victimization Survey (2000) o Other data­ Hate Crimes o 60% of all hate crime involves race  Black Canadians are targeted of half of hate crimes • Representation of Black Community o Blacks as Symbolic Assailants  Not all bad cops but Aboriginals do not look at certain people of authority in the eyes and the police  may find that as they are guilty not necessarily   Race gets connected with violence or threat of violence • Wortley (2002) o News paper analysis­­%0% of news stories involving Blacks dealt with crime and violence compared with 14%  of those with Whites  White victims received more coverage than Black victims  Murder of white victims receive
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