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Lecture 3

SOC345H5 Lecture 3: Lecture 3

by Maya , Fall 2016
8 Pages
80 Views

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC345H5
Professor
Angela Mashford- Pringle
Lecture
3

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Lecture 3: Brief History
Sept, 19, 2016
Important policies and legislation
BNA act (July, 1,1867)
Treaties- there were 70 treaties and 11 numbered treaties
Indian act (1876) and amendments
o Defines who is considered a first nations persons
World War 1 and 2
Right to vote
National Indian Brotherhood
o The assembly of first nations (AFN)
Why are treaties not how they were supposed to be?
There was a language barrier that prevented understanding of the intent behind the
Europeans
Also there was a difference in understanding what land ownership is, Aboriginals thought
the Europeans wanted to share the land but the Europeans were actually trading the land
for trinkets
Treaty number 9
35% of Aboriginal men enlist for WW1
If you list in the war you are no longer a first nation
The aboriginals wanted to help the country but ended up being destitute after since they
could no longer return to their reserves
The 1911 census shows Aboriginal population at their lowest recorded point in history
(106,000)
Indian Act and Amendments
Created eligibility criteria
Denied traditional ways of belonging
Changed governance structures
Forcing things to happen, a way to assimilate
By taking people out of the reserves they could change the ideals and beliefs
Death and Experiments
About 60,000 children did not make it out of the schools, and were placed in a mass
grave next to the school and weren’t consecrated properly (there were no marked graves )
Did experiments on them, starved them to see what nutrients they needed
Other experiments included forced sterilization (legally in Alberta but was used across
the country)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Vast majority of schools did not send students home because they wouldn’t come back
because the parents wouldn’t want to send them back
There were a lot of children that were dying from disease and they knew how to treat
them but didn’t
Residential schools closed in Canada in 1996
For the child taken and the parent left behind
The Aboriginal Healing Foundation was a not for profit private corporation established in
1998 recommended in the Gathering Strength document to begin to understand and
recognized the impact of Indian residential schools
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission was suggested in 1998 to document survivor’s
stories. The commission has town halls and recorded survivors and children of survivors
stories
It takes almost 10 years for the creation of the truth and reconciliation commission
The Apology
Accepted by some and others feel that it wasn’t serious and has no real intention of
making things better
The speech was also similar to one made by the Australian PM a couple weeks before
The commission was ready to give 3,000 if you chose to go to a post-secondary
institution and you have to prove that you went to residential schools
o The money would go to the institution that you are planning to go to (its like a
scholarship)
o Giving money in a place that they weren’t going to use it
20’s and 1930’s
Ceremonies banned (potlach and sun dance)
o Potlach chief accumulates and give out wealth
o Gov’t didn’t like it because it created communalism and everyone is seen as an
equal
o Sun dance was praying to the creator and they look for the future
No national Aboriginal organization allowed
Longhouse government banned and impose elected band council
o Before aboriginal representatives were chosen by the elderly women in the tribe
o The gov’t didn’t like it and decided to impose band council because they had no
control on who was being chosen
70 residential schools in operation
1940’s and 1950’s
Aboriginal participation in WW2 is high
Tommy Prince becomes most decorated Aboriginal soldier in WW2
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
o He didn’t get the access to the health care the other veterans received since he was
aboriginal
o He lived off the streets until he died since he couldn’t return to his reserve
The aboriginals couldn’t pay for the taxes that covered the OHIP costs and since the
gov’t was responsible for the Aboriginals the Gov’t had to pay for their cost
1950- Indian Act overhauled with Aboriginal participation
In 1951 there was amendments to the Indian Act
o Eg. Aboriginal women lost status if they marry non-Indians but aboriginal males
were able to give their wives their status if they were non-Indian and their
children as well
o If you don’t send the children to the residential schools thee gov’t could force the
children to go
John Diefenbaker
Prime Minister (PC) 1957-1963
First Prime Minister to give rights to Aboriginal people, the right to vote
Appointed Blood Tribe member, James Gladstone, the first Native senator
Weren’t allowed to have legal representation either till 1991
Sixties Scoop
In the late 1950’s and throughout the 1960’S Indigenous children were taken from their
families if there was any interaction with child welfare
This was done at the same time that residential schools were still open
The govt knew that the residential schools were not working so they started using the
sixties scoop but they didn’t close the residential schools
This is was because the Indian act says that they had the right to send the aboriginal
children to any school they place they choose
The white middle class women came to the reserve and would take the children away
saying that the parents weren’t taking care them well
Did the white glove test to check the dirt in the house
If the house was dirty then the children get taken away
The aboriginal children were adopted around the world
Statistics released by Aboriginal Affairs Canada reveal 11,132 status Indian children
were adopted between 1960 and 1990
o Number could be higher because it didn’t account for non-status Indians
Many others that are of Aboriginal descent but not listed as “status” on their adoption/
foster care forms were also sent to live in other family homes
Incidence study- Current stats
35% of all children in child protection are aboriginal
The foster parents did not care about the children and the government did not supervise
these services
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
Lecture 3: Brief History Sept, 19, 2016 Important policies and legislation BNA act (July, 1,1867) Treaties there were 70 treaties and 11 numbered treaties Indian act (1876) and amendments o Defines who is considered a first nations persons World War 1 and 2 Right to vote National Indian Brotherhood o The assembly of first nations (AFN) Why are treaties not how they were supposed to be? There was a language barrier that prevented understanding of the intent behind the Europeans Also there was a difference in understanding what land ownership is, Aboriginals thought the Europeans wanted to share the land but the Europeans were actually trading the land for trinkets Treaty number 9 35 of Aboriginal men enlist for WW1 If you list in the war you are no longer a first nation The aboriginals wanted to help the country but ended up being destitute after since they could no longer return to their reserves The 1911 census shows Aboriginal population at their lowest recorded point in history (106,000) Indian Act and Amendments Created eligibility criteria Denied traditional ways of belonging Changed governance structures Forcing things to happen, a way to assimilate By taking people out of the reserves they could change the ideals and beliefs Death and Experiments About 60,000 children did not make it out of the schools, and were placed in a mass grave next to the school and werent consecrated properly (there were no marked graves ) Did experiments on them, starved them to see what nutrients they needed Other experiments included forced sterilization (legally in Alberta but was used across the country)
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